Vander's human physiology : the mechanisms of body function / Eric P. Widmaier, Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang.

Widmaier, Eric P.
Other Title:
Human physiology
12th ed. / Eric P. Widmaier, Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang.
New York : McGraw-Hill, c2011.
1 v. (various pagings) : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 29 cm.
Human physiology -- Textbooks.
Medical subjects:
Biochemical Phenomena.
Physiological Phenomena.
Homeostasis: a framework for human physiology
Chemical composition of the body
Cellular structure, proteins, and metabolism
Movement of molecules across cell membranes
Control of cells by chemical messengers
Neuronal signaling and the structure of the nervous system
Sensory physiology
Consciousness, the brain, and behavior
Control of Body Movement
The endocrine system
Cardiovascular physiology
Respiratory physiology
The kidneys and regulation of water and inorganic ions
The digestion and absorption of food
Regulation of organic metabolism and energy balance
The immune system
Medical physiology: integration using clinical cases.
Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Homeostasis: A Framework for Human Physiology
1.1. The Scope of Human Physiology
1.2. How Is the Body Organized?
Muscle Cells and Tissue
Neurons and Nervous Tissue
Epithelial Cells and Epithelial Tissue
Connective-Tissue Cells and Connective Tissue
Organs and Organ Systems
1.3. Body Fluid Compartments
1.4. Homeostasis: A Defining Feature of Physiology
1.5. General Characteristics of Homeostatic Control Systems
Feedback Systems
Resetting of Set Points
Feedforward Regulation
1.6. Components of Homeostatic Control Systems
Local Homeostatic Responses
1.7. Intercellular Chemical Messengers
1.8. Processes Related to Homeostasis
Adaptation and Acclimatization
Biological Rhythms
Balance in the Homeostasis of Chemical Substances in the Body
ch. 1 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 2 Chemical Composition of the Body
2.1. Atoms
Components of Atoms
Atomic Number
Atomic Weight
Atomic Composition of the Body
2.2. Molecules
Covalent Chemical Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
Molecular Shape
Ionic Molecules
Free Radicals
2.3. Solutions
Molecular Solubility
Hydrogen Ions and Acidity
2.4. Classes of Organic Molecules
Nucleic Acids
ch. 2 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 3 Cellular Structure, Proteins, and Metabolism
Section A Cell Structure
3A.1. Microscopic Observations of Cells
3A.2. Membranes
Membrane Structure
Membrane Junctions
3A.3. Cell Organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Apparatus
Section B Proteins
3B.1. Genetic Code
3B.2. Protein Synthesis
Transcription: mRNA Synthesis
Translation: Polypeptide Synthesis
Regulation of Protein Synthesis
3B.3. Protein Degradation
3B.4. Protein Secretion
Section C Protein-Binding Sites
3C.1. Binding Site Characteristics
Chemical Specificity
3C.2. Regulation of Binding Site Characteristics
Allosteric Modulation
Covalent Modulation
Section D Enzymes and Chemical Energy
3D.1. Chemical Reactions
Determinants of Reaction Rates
Reversible and Irreversible Reactions
Law of Mass Action
3D.2. Enzymes
3D.3. Regulation of Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
Substrate Concentration
Enzyme Concentration
Enzyme Activity
3D.4. Multienzyme Reactions
Section E Metabolic Pathways
3E.1. Cellular Energy Transfer
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
3E.2. Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Fat Metabolism
Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
Metabolism Summary
3E.3. Essential Nutrients
ch. 3 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
Ch. 4 Movement of Molecules Across Cell Membranes
4.1. Diffusion
Magnitude and Direction of Diffusion
Diffusion Rate Versus Distance
Diffusion Through Membranes
4.2. Mediated-Transport Systems
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
4.3. Osmosis
Extracellular Osmolarity and Cell Volume
4.4. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
4.5. Epithelial Transport
ch. 4 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 5 Control of Cells by Chemical Messengers
5.1. Receptors
Regulation of Receptors
5.2. Signal Transduction Pathways
Pathways Initiated by Lipid-Soluble Messengers
Pathways Initiated by Water-Soluble Messengers
Plasma Membrane Receptors and Gene Transcription
Cessation of Activity in Signal Transduction Pathways
ch. 5 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 6 Neuronal Signaling and the Structure of the Nervous System
Section A Neural Tissue
6A.1. Structure and Maintenance of Neurons
6A.2. Functional Classes of Neurons
6A.3. Glial Cells
6A.4. Neural Growth and Regeneration
Section B Membrane Potentials
6B.1. Basic Principles of Electricity
6B.2. The Resting Membrane Potential
6B.3. Graded Potentials and Action Potentials
Graded Potentials
Action Potentials
Section C Synapses
6C.1. Functional Anatomy of Synapses
6C.2. Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release
6C.3. Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell
Excitatory Chemical Synapses
Inhibitory Chemical Synapses
6C.4. Synaptic Integration
6C.5. Synaptic Strength
Modification of Synaptic Transmission by Drugs and Disease
6C.6. Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
Biogenic Amines
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
6C.7. Neuroeffector Communication
Section D Structure of the Nervous System
6D.1. Central Nervous System: Brain
6D.2. Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord
6D.3. Peripheral Nervous System
6D.4. Autonomic Nervous System
6D.5. Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier, and Cerebrospinal Fluid
ch. 6 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 7 Sensory Physiology
Section A General Principles
7A.1. Sensory Receptors
The Receptor Potential
7A.2. Primary Sensory Coding
Stimulus Type
Stimulus Intensity
Stimulus Location
Central Control of Afferent Information
7A.3. Ascending Neural Pathways in Sensory Systems
7A.4. Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing
Factors That Affect Perception
Section B Specific Sensory Systems
7B.1. Somatic Sensation
Touch and Pressure
Sense of Posture and Movement
Neural Pathways of the Somatosensory System
7B.2. Vision
Overview of Eye Anatomy
The Optics of Vision
Photoreceptor Cells and Phototransduction
Neural Pathways of Vision
Color Vision
Color Blindness
Eye Movement
7B.3. Hearing
Sound Transmission in the Ear
Hair Cells of the Organ of Corti
Neural Pathways in Hearing
7B.4. Vestibular System
The Semicircular Canals
The Utricle and Saccule
Vestibular Information and Pathways
7B.5. Chemical Senses
ch. 7 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 8 Consciousness, the Brain, and Behavior
8.1. States of Consciousness
The Waking State
Neural Substrates of States of Consciousness
Coma and Brain Death
8.2. Conscious Experiences
Selective Attention
Neural Mechanisms of Conscious Experiences
8.3. Motivation and Emotion
8.4. Altered States of Consciousness
The Mood Disorders: Depressions and Bipolar Disorders
Psychoactive Substances, Dependences, and Tolerance
8.5. Learning and Memory
The Neural Basis of Learning and Memory
8.6. Cerebral Dominance and Language
Ch. 8 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 9 Muscle
Section A Skeletal Muscle
9A.1. Structure
9A.2. Molecular Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Sliding-Filament Mechanism
Roles of Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Ca2+ in Contraction
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Membrane Excitation: The Neuromuscular Junction
9A.3. Mechanics of Single-Fiber Contraction
Twitch Contractions
Load-Velocity Relation
Frequency-Tension Relation
Length-Tension Relation
9A.4. Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism
Muscle Fatigue
9A.5. Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
9A.6. Whole-Muscle Contraction
Control of Muscle Tension
Control of Shortening Velocity
Muscle Adaptation to Exercise
Lever Action of Muscles and Bones
9A.7. Skeletal Muscle Disorders
Muscle Cramps
Hypocalcemic Tetany
Muscular Dystrophy
Myasthenia Gravis
Section B Smooth and Cardiac Muscle
9B.1. Structure of Smooth Muscle
9B.2. Smooth Muscle Contraction and Its Control
Cross-Bridge Activation
Sources of Cytosolic Ca2+
Membrane Activation
Types of Smooth Muscle
9B.3. Cardiac Muscle
Cellular Structure of Cardiac Muscle
Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Muscle
ch. 9 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 10 Control of Body Movement
10.1. Motor Control Hierarchy
Voluntary and Involuntary Actions
10.2. Local Control of Motor Neurons
Local Afferent Input
10.3. The Brain Motor Centers and the Descending Pathways They Control
Cerebral Cortex
Subcortical and Brainstem Nuclei
Descending Pathways
Note continued: 10.4. Muscle Tone
Abnormal Muscle Tone
10.5. Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance
10.6. Walking
ch. 10 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 11 The Endocrine System
Section A Principles of Hormonal Control Systems
11A.1. Hormone Structures and Synthesis
Amine Hormones
Peptide and Protein Hormones
Steroid Hormones
11A.2. Hormone Transport in the Blood
11A.3. Hormone Metabolism and Excretion
11A.4. Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Hormone Receptors
Events Elicited by Hormone-Receptor Binding
Pharmacological Effects of Hormones
11A.5. Inputs That Control Hormone Secretion
Control by Plasma Concentrations of Mineral Ions or Organic Nutrients
Control by Neurons
Control by Other Hormones
11A.6. Types of Endocrine Disorders
Hyporesponsiveness and Hyperresponsiveness
Section B The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
11B.1. Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Posterior Pituitary Gland Hormones
Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones and the Hypothalamus
Section C The Thyroid Gland
11C.1. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones
11C.2. Control of Thyroid Function
11C.3. Actions of Thyroid Hormones
Metabolic Actions
Permissive Actions
Growth and Development
11C.4. Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism
Section D The Endocrine Response to Stress
11D.1. Physiological Functions of Cortisol
11D.2. Functions of Cortisol in Stress
11D.3. Adrenal Insufficiency and Cushing's Syndrome
11D.4. Other Hormones Released During Stress
11D.5. Psychological Stress and Disease
Section E Endocrine Control of Growth
11E.1. Bone Growth
11E.2. Environmental Factors Influencing Growth
11E.3. Hormonal Influences on Growth
Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factors
Thyroid Hormones
Sex Hormones
Section F Endocrine Control of Ca2+ Homeostasis
11F.1. Effector Sites for Ca2+ Homeostasis
Gastrointestinal Tract
11F.2. Hormonal Controls
Parathyroid Hormone
1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D
11F.3. Metabolic Bone Diseases
ch. 11 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 12 Cardiovascular Physiology
Section A Overall Design of the Circulatory System
12A.1. System Overview
12A.2. Pressure, Flow, and Resistance
Section B The Heart
12B.1. Anatomy
Cardiac Muscle
12B.2. Heartbeat Coordination
Sequence of Excitation
Cardiac Action Potentials and Excitation of the SA Node
The Electrocardiogram
Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Refractory Period of the Heart
12B.3. Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle
Mid-Diastole to Late Diastole
Early Diastole
Pulmonary Circulation Pressures
Heart Sounds
12B.4. The Cardiac Output
Control of Heart Rate
Control of Stroke Volume
12B.5. Measurement of Cardiac Function
Section C The Vascular System
12C.1. Arteries
Arterial Blood Pressure
Measurement of Systemic Arterial Pressure
12C.2. Arterioles
Local Controls
Extrinsic Controls
Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle
Arteriolar Control in Specific Organs
12C.3. Capillaries
Anatomy of the Capillary Network
Velocity of Capillary Blood Flow
Diffusion Across the Capillary Wall: Exchanges of Nutrients and Metabolic End Products
Bulk Flow Across the Capillary Wall: Distribution of the Extracellular Fluid
12C.4. Veins
Determinants of Venous Pressure
12C.5. The Lymphatic System
Mechanism of Lymph Flow
Section D Integration of Cardiovascular Function: Regulation of Systemic Arterial Pressure
12D.1. Baroreceptor Reflexes
Arterial Baroreceptors
The Medullary Cardiovascular Center
Operation of the Arterial Baroreceptor Reflex
Other Baroreceptors
12D.2. Blood Volume and Long-Term Regulation of Arterial Pressure
12D.3. Other Cardiovascular Reflexes and Responses
Section E Cardiovascular Patterns in Health and Disease
12E.1. Hemorrhage and Other Causes of Hypotension
12E.2. The Upright Posture
12E.3. Exercise
Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Training
12E.4. Hypertension
12E.5. Heart Failure
12E.6. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
12E.7. Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks
Section F Blood and Hemostasis
12F.1. Plasma
12F.2. The Blood Cells
Regulation of Blood Cell Production
12F.3. Hemostasis: The Prevention of Blood Loss
Formation of a Platelet Plug
Blood Coagulation: Clot Formation
Anticlotting Systems
Anticlotting Drugs
ch. 12 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 13 Respiratory Physiology
13.1. Organization of the Respiratory System
The Airways and Blood Vessels
Site of Gas Exchange: The Alveoli
Relation of the Lungs to the Thoracic (Chest) Wall
13.2. Ventilation and Lung Mechanics
How is a Stable Balance Achieved Between Breaths?
Lung Compliance
Airway Resistance
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Alveolar Ventilation
13.3. Exchange of Gases in Alveoli and Tissues
Partial Pressures of Gases
Alveolar Gas Pressures
Gas Exchange Between Alveoli and Blood
Matching of Ventilation and Blood Flow in Alveoli
Gas Exchange Between Tissues and Blood
13.4. Transport of Oxygen in Blood
What is the Effect of Po2 on Hemoglobin Saturation?
Effects of Blood Pco2' H+ Concentration, Temperature, and DPG Concentration on Hemoglobin Saturation
13.5. Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Blood
13.6. Transport of Hydrogen Ion Between Tissues and Lungs
13.7. Control of Respiration
Neural Generation of Rhythmic Breathing
Control of Ventilation by Po2' Pco2, and H+ Concentration
Control of Ventilation During Exercise
Other Ventilatory Responses
13.8. Hypoxia
Why Do Ventilation-Perfusion Abnormalities Affect O2 More Than CO2?
Acclimatization to High Altitude
13.9. Nonrespiratory Functions of the Lungs
ch. 13 Clinical Cast Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 14 The Kidneys and Regulation of Water and Inorganic Ions
Section A Basic Principles of Renal Physiology
14A.1. Renal Functions
14A.2. Structure of the Kidneys and Urinary System
14A.3. Basic Renal Processes
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Metabolism by the Tubules
Regulation of Membrane Channels and Transporters
"Division of Labor" in the Tubules
14A.4. The Concept of Renal Clearance
14A.5. Micturition
Section B Regulation of Ion and Water Balance
14B.1. Total-Body Balance of Sodium and Water
14B.2. Basic Renal Processes for Sodium and Water
Primary Active Na+ Reabsorption
Coupling of Water Reabsorption to Na+ Resbsorption
Urine Concentration: The Countercurrent Multiplier System
14B.3. Renal Sodium Regulation
Control of GFR
Control of Na+ Reabsorption
14B.4. Renal Water Regulation
Osmoreceptor Control of Vasopressin Secretion
Baroreceptor Control of Vasopressin Secretion
14B.5. A Summary Example: The Response to Sweating
14B.6. Thirst and Salt Appetite
14B.7. Potassium Regulation
Renal Regulation of K+
14B.8. Renal Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Ion
14B.9. Summary
Division of Labor
14B.10. Diuretics
Section C Hydrogen Ion Regulation
14C.1. Sources of Hydrogen Ion Gain or Loss
14C.2. Buffering of Hydrogen Ion in the Body
14C.3. Integration of Homeostatic Controls
14C.4. Renal Mechanisms
Addition of New HCO3
to the Plasma
Renal Responses to Acidosis and Alkalosis
14C.5. Classification of Acidosis and Alkalosis
ch. 14 Clinical Case Study
Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, and Transplantation
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 15 The Digestion and Absorption of Food
15.1. Overview: Functions of the Gastrointestinal Organs
15.2. Structure of the Gastrointestinal Tract Wall
15.3. Digestion and Absorption
Water and Minerals
15.4. How Are Gastrointestinal Processes Regulated?
Basic Principles
Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
Pancreatic Secretions
Bile Secretion and Liver Function
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
15.5. Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Lactose Intolerance
Constipation and Diarrhea
ch. 15 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 16 Regulation of Organic Metabolism and Energy Balance
Section A Control and Integration of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Metabolism
16A.1. Events of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States
Absorptive State
Postabsorptive State
Note continued: 16A.2. Endocrine and Neural Control of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States
Epinephrine and Sympathetic Nerves to Liver and Adipose Tissue
Growth Hormone
Summary of Hormonal Controls
16A.3. Energy Homeostasis in Exercise and Stress
Section B Regulation of Total-Body Energy Balance and Temperature
16B.1. Basic Concepts of Energy Expenditure
Metabolic Rate
16B.2. Regulation of Total-Body Energy Stores
Control of Food Intake
Overweight and Obesity
Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
What Should We Eat?
16B.3. Regulation of Body Temperature
Mechanisms of Heat Loss or Gain
Temperature-Regulating Reflexes
Temperature Acclimatization
16B.4. Fever and Hyperthermia
ch. 16 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
Ch. 17 Reproduction
Section A Overview of Terminology and General Principles
Section B Gametogenesis, Sex Determination, and Sex Differentiation
17B.1. Gametogenesis
17B.2. Sex Determination
17B.3. Sex Differentiation
Differentiation of the Gonads
Differentiation of Internal and External Genitalia
17B.4. Sexual Differentiation of the Central Nervous System and Homosexuality
Section C Male Reproductive Physiology
17C.1. Anatomy
17C.2. Spermatogenesis
17C.3. Transport of Sperm
17C.4. Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
Control of the Testes
17C.5. Puberty
Secondary Sex Characteristics and Growth
17C.6. Hypogonadism
17C.7. Andropause
Section D Female Reproductive Physiology
17D.1. Anatomy
17D.2. Ovarian Functions
Follicle Growth
Formation of the Corpus Luteum
Sites of Synthesis of Ovarian Hormones
17D.3. Control of Ovarian Function
Follicle Development and Estrogen Synthesis During the Early and Middle Follicular Phases
LH Surge and Ovulation
The Luteal Phase
17D.4. Uterine Changes in the Menstrual Cycle
17D.5. Other Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone
17D.6. Androgens in Women
17D.7. Puberty
17D.8. Female Sexual Response
17D.9. Pregnancy
Egg Transport
Intercourse, Sperm Transport, and Capacitation
Early Development, Implantation, and Placentation
Hormonal and Other Changes During Pregnancy
17D.10. Menopause
ch. 17 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 18 The Immune System
18.1. Cells and Secretions Mediating Immune Defenses
Immune Cells
18.2. Innate Immune Responses
Defenses at Body Surfaces
Toll-Like Receptors
18.3. Adaptive Immune Responses
Lymphoid Organs and Lymphocyte Origins
Functions of B Cells and T Cells
Lymphocyte Receptors
Antigen Presentation to T Cells
NK Cells
Development of Immune Tolerance
Antibody-Mediated Immune Responses: Defenses Against Bacteria, Extracellular Viruses, and Toxins
Defenses Against Virus-Infected Cells and Cancer Cells
18.4. Systemic Manifestations of Infection
18.5. Factors That Alter the Resistance to Infection
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
18.6. Harmful Immune Responses
Graft Rejection
Transfusion Reactions
Allergy (Hypersensitivity)
Autoimmune Disease
Excessive Inflammatory Responses
ch. 18 Clinical Case Study
Test Questions
Quantitative and Thought Questions
Answers to Physiological Inquiries
ch. 19 Medical Physiology: Integration Using Clinical Cases
Case 19-1 A Woman with Palpitations and Heat Intolerance
19-1.1. Case Presentation
19-1.2. Physical Examination
19-1.3. Laboratory Tests
19-1.4. Diagnosis
19-1.5. Physiological Integration
19-1.6. Therapy
Case 19-2 A Man with Chest Pain After a Long Airplane Flight
19-2.1. Case Presentation
19-2.2. Physical Examination
19-2.3. Laboratory Tests
19-2.4. Diagnosis
19-2.5. Physiological Integration
19-2.6. Therapy
Case 19-3 A Man with Abdominal Pain, Fever, and Circulatory Failure
19-3.1. Case Presentation
19-3.2. Physical Examination
19-3.3. Laboratory Tests
19-3.4. Diagnosis
19-3.5. Physiological Integration
19-3.6. Therapy
Case 19-4 A College Student with Nausea, Flushing, and Sweating
19-4.1. Case Presentation
19-4.2. Physical Examination
19-4.3. Laboratory Tests
19-4.4. Diagnosis
19-4.5. Physiological Integration
19-4.6. Therapy.
Includes index.
Raff, Hershel, 1953-
Strang, Kevin T.
Vander, Arthur J., 1933-
9780073378107 (hard copy : alk. paper)
0073378100 (hard copy : alk. paper)
9780077350017 (hbk.)
0077350014 (hbk.)
9780071222150 (pbk.)
0071222154 (pbk.)
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