Opening doors : gender equality and development in the Middle East North Africa / The World Bank.

Washington, DC : World Bank, [2013]
MENA development report
Government document
xvii, 187 pages : color illustrations ; 27 cm.
Women's rights -- Middle East.
Women's rights -- Africa, North.
Sex discrimination against women -- Middle East.
Sex discrimination against women -- Africa, North.
Women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Middle East.
Women -- Legal status, laws, etc. -- Africa, North.
Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
Gender equality in MENA : the facts and the puzzle
Impressive achievements in human development
Little discrimination between girls and boys within the household
Of the lowest rates of excess female mortality in the world
Rapid declines in maternal mortality
More girls in school than in much of the world
Virtually no gender gaps in enrolment, and reverse gender gaps in university, and math performance
MENA's performance in human development is largely explained by economic development and wealth
Some challenges remain
The puzzle in MENA : why do women participate in such few numbers outside the home?
Women in the workforce
Women in business
Women in politics
What explains the mena puzzle?
Religion is too simplistic an explanation
Oil endowments alone cannot explain the paradox either
Social norms and the legal framework limit women's agency
Social and cultural norms constrain women's roles outside the home
Evolving norms and the invisible hand of marriage
Equality under the law and its enforcement is critical for women's agency
Legal systems differ widely and derive from multiple sources
Legal constraints to women's agency in MENA
Economic incentives dampen participation in the workforce
A social contract underpinned by a generous but costly welfare state
Extensive public sector employment with generous compensation
Generous subsidies encourage women to stay at home
State regulation and intervention in the market
Heavy investment in education, but not the kind that businesses want
Unequal access to entrepreneurship opportunities
The time for reform is now
Aspirations are changing
As education levels increase, female labor force participation will likely increase
A demographic gift?
The social contract is no longer sustainable
Opening the door to women : policy directions
A roadmap for reform
Policies to address the region's challenges
Closing the remaining gender gaps in human deelopment
Expanding economic opportunities for women
Closing gender gaps in voice and agency
Supporting evidence-based policy making
Technical annex
Appendix 1.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
World Bank.
9780821397633 (alk. paper)
082139763X (alk. paper)
9780821397640 (ebk.)
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