Franklin

Introduction to neuroglia [electronic resource] / Alexei Verkhratsky and Vladimir Parpura.

Author/Creator:
Verkhratskiĭ, A. N. (Alekseĭ Nestorovich), author.
Publication:
San Rafael, California (1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, CA 94901 USA) : Morgan & Claypool, 2014.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (ix, 62 pages) : illustrations
Series:
Colloquium digital library of life sciences.
Colloquium series on neuroglia in biology and medicine ; # 1.
Colloquium series on neuroglia in biology and medicine ; # 1
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Details

Subjects:
Neuroglia.
Medical subjects:
Neuroglia.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Summary:
This book is the introduction to a series of e-books dedicated to physiology and pathophysiology of neuroglia. The topic of neuroglia is generally overlooked in neuroscience curricula across the world, the main attention being focused on the description of excitability of neurons and neuronal networks. The neuroglia, being electrically non-excitable, are universally regarded as supportive cells which do not contribute to information processing. This oversimplified view, however, ignores the tremendous importance of brain homeostasis, which is imperative for the ongoing activity of neuronal networks. It also ignores the truth that specialization of neurons and their ability for rapid propagation and multi-level integration of signals become possible only because of delegation of homeostatic abilities to neuroglia. Furthermore, glial cells contribute to information processing as they can modulate neuronal synaptic transmission. Finally, neuroglia provide the only system of brain defense and as such these cells are intimately involved in all types of neuropathologies, and contribute to both neuroprotection and regeneration of the nervous system. The e-books in this series provide a platform for in-depth learning of all aspects of neuroglial cells function in health and disease.
Contents:
1. Introduction
1.1 General perspective
1.2 History of neuroscience and emergence of neuroglia
1.2.1 Neuroscience in antiquity
1.2.2 Cortical localization of brain functions
1.2.3 The cellular theory and discovery of neural cells
1.2.4 The concept of neuroglia

2. Definition, classification, and evolution of neuroglia
2.1 Definition of neuroglia
2.2 Classification of neuroglia
2.3 Evolution of neuroglia
2.3.1 Parenchymal homeostasis-maintaining glia, i.e., astroglia
2.3.2 Evolution of myelination
2.3.3 Evolution of microglia
2.4 Numbers: how many glial cells are in the brain?

3. Functions of neuroglia
3.1 Astroglia
3.1.1 Control of nervous system development
3.1.2 Adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis
3.1.3 Micro-architecture of the grey matter
3.1.4 Formation of the blood-brain barrier
3.1.5 Regulation of microcirculation
3.1.6 Metabolic homeostasis
3.1.7 Water homeostasis
3.1.8 Dynamic regulation of extracellular volume
3.1.9 Osmotic homeostasis
3.1.10 Ion homeostasis
3.1.11 pH homeostasis
3.1.12 Neurotransmitter homeostasis
3.1.13 Reactive oxygen species homeostasis
3.1.14 Central chemoception
3.1.15 Release of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
3.1.16 Regulation of synaptic transmission
3.1.17 Circadian rhythms
3.1.18 Sleep
3.1.19 Female sexual maturity
3.1.20 Light guidance
3.1.21 Defensive role: reactive astrogliosis
3.2 Oligodendroglia
3.3 NG2 cells
3.4 Microglia
3.4.1 Origin
3.4.2 Physiological functions of microglia
3.4.3 Defensive function: innate immunity and phagocytosis
3.5 Peripheral glia

Concluding remarks
References
Author biographies.
Notes:
Part of: Colloquium digital library of life sciences.
Series from website.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 51-60).
Title from PDF title page (viewed on March 15, 2014).
Contributor:
Parpura, Vladimir, 1964-, author.
ISBN:
9781615046492
9781615046485
Publisher Number:
10.4199/C00102ED1V01Y201401NGL001 doi
Access Restriction:
Restricted for use by site license.