Synopsis: For students studying education or psychology, for teachers or prospective teachers, and for instructional designers or instructors. A concrete guide to the science of learning, instruction, and assessment written in a friendly tone and presented in a dynamic format. The underlying premise of Applying the Science of Learning is that educators can better help students learn if they understand the processes through which student learning takes place. In this clear and concise first edition text, educational psychology scholar Richard Mayer teaches readers how to apply the science of learning through understanding the reciprocal relationships between learning, instruction, and assessment. Utilizing the significant advances in scientific learning research over the last 25 years, this introductory text identifies the features of science of learning that are most relevant to education, explores the possible prescriptions of these findings for instructional methods, and highlights the essentials of evaluating instructional effectiveness through assessment. Applying the Science of Learning is also presented in an easy-to-read modular design and with a conversational tone - making it particularly student-friendly, whether it is being used as a supplement to a core textbook or as a standalone course textbook. Features: A concise and concentrated view of the field that covers the foundational ideas in learning, instruction, and assessment without overwhelming students or wasting words; A modular, multimedia approach organizes course material into two-page units with specific objectives, helpful graphics, and a welcoming design that helps readers organize and understand each concept; An emphasis on clear writing and concrete ideas makes learning easier for readers, especially by providing vocabulary definitions and specific examples; A personal and friendly tone instead of a formal, academic style make this book easier and more enjoyable to read. While few academic references clutter the text, key references and suggested readings are provided at the end of each section.
Preface Introduction Big three: learning, instruction, and assessment Rationale for applying the science of learning What is applying the science of learning? Historical overview of the relation between the science of learning and the science of instruction Viewing the relation between the science of learning and the science of instruction as overlapping goals References and suggested reading How Learning Works What is learning? What changes: behavior or knowledge? What is the science of learning? Look at transfer How learning works: three metaphors of learning Closer look at response strengthening: Thorndike's law of effect Closer look at information acquisition: Ebbinghaus' learning curve A closer look at knowledge construction: Bartlett's assimilation to schema How learning works: three principles from the learning sciences Closer look at dual channels: Paivio's concreteness effect Closer look at limited capacity: Millers magic number 7 Closer look at active processing: Wittrocks generative processes How learning works: a cognitive model of learning Three memory stores in meaningful learning Three cognitive processes in meaningful learning Mighty ms: motivation and metacognition Motivation to learn How motivation works Metacognition in learning Learning in subject areas Eight things we know about learning from word lists References and suggested readings How Instruction Works What is instruction? What is the science of Instruction? What is an instructional objective? Three Levels of instructional objectives Five kinds of knowledge in instructional Objectives Six kinds of cognitive processes in instructional objectives How instruction works: three demands on cognitive capacity How instruction works: three instructional scenarios Twelve instructional design principles for lesson learning Evidence-based instructional principles for reducing extraneous processing Evidence-based instructional principles for managing essential processing Evidence-based instructional principles for fostering generative processing Eight instructional design principles for effective studying Evidence-based principles for studying by practicing Evidence-based principles for studying by generating How to guide cognitive processes during learning Instructional techniques for selecting Instructional techniques for organizing Instructional techniques for integrating Three Popular but questionable principles Closer look at active teaching and learning References and suggested readings How Assessment Works What Is assessment? What is the science of assessment? Three functions of assessments How to construct a useful assessment instrument What is research on instructional effects? What works? using randomized controlled experiments When does it work? using factorial experiments How does it work? using observational analysis Closer look at experiments Using effect size to assess instructional effects Six reasons for no difference between the treatment and control groups How to assess learning outcomes Two ways to measure learning outcomes Three kinds of learning outcomes Closer look at meaningful versus rote learning: Wertheimer's parallelogram lesson Closer look at assessment of learning outcomes: how much or what kind? Broadening the domain of assessment Closer look at broadening the domain of assessment Attribute treatment interactions Attribute treatment interactions involving prior knowledge What can go wrong with assessments? References and suggested readings Epilogue glossary and subject index Author index.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 124-125) and indexes.
Acquired for the Penn Libraries with assistance from the James Hosmer Penniman Book Fund.