Franklin

The Caucasus and Central Asia [electronic resource] : Transitioning to Emerging Markets, International Monetary Fund, Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Author/Creator:
International Monetary Fund, Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Publication:
Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, 2014.
Series:
IMF eLibrary
Departmental Papers / Policy Papers: Middle East and Central Asia Departmental Paper 14/02
Format/Description:
Government document
Book
1 online resource (84 p.)
Local subjects:
Access.
Access to Information.
Accountability.
Accounting.
Aggregate Demand.
Aggregate Output.
Allocation of Credit.
Asset Diversification.
Asset Pools.
Auctions.
Auditing.
Autonomy.
Average Growth.
Bailout.
Balance of Payments.
Balance Sheet.
Balance Sheets.
Bank Balance Sheets.
Bank Credit.
Bank Lending.
Bank Management.
Bank Operations.
Bank Supervision.
Bank Supervisors.
Banking.
Banking Crises.
Banking Crisis.
Banking Sector.
Banking Sector Development.
Banking Sectors.
Banking System.
Banking Systems.
Bankruptcy Laws.
Barriers.
Boards of Directors.
Bonds.
Boom-Bust Cycles.
Borrowers.
Broad Money.
Budget.
Budget Systems.
Budgeting.
Business Climates.
Business Cycle.
Business Cycles.
Business Environment.
Capacity Constraints.
Capital Allocation.
Capital Constraints.
Capital Flows.
Capital Formation.
Capital Inflows.
Capital Market Development.
Capital Market Liberalization.
Capital Markets.
Capital Mobility.
Capital Outlays.
Capital Requirements.
Capital Stocks.
Central Bank.
Central Bank Independence.
Central Banks.
Certificates of Deposit.
Civil Society.
Civil Unrest.
Civil War.
Collateral.
Collateral Registries.
Commercial Banking.
Commercial Banks.
Commodities.
Commodity.
Commodity Exports.
Commodity Prices.
Communications.
Competition.
Competitive Auctions.
Compliance Costs.
Conflicts of Interest.
Connected Lending.
Connectivity.
Consolidated Supervision.
Consumer Durables.
Consumption.
Consumption Smoothing.
Contingent Liabilities.
Contracts.
Controlling Corruption.
Corporate Bonds.
Corporate Governance.
Corruption.
Credibility.
Credit.
Credit Bureaus.
Credit Growth.
Credit Intermediation.
Credit Markets.
Credit Unions.
Creditor.
Creditor Rights.
Criteria.
Cross-Border Cooperation.
Currencies.
Currency.
Customs Union.
Debt.
Debt Financing.
Debt Management.
Debt Overhang.
Debt Ratio.
Deficits.
Demand Shocks.
Democracy.
Deposit.
Deposit Rate.
Deposits.
Developing Countries.
Developing Economies.
Development Bank.
Directed Credit.
Disclosure Standards.
Diversified Portfolios.
Documentation Requirements.
Domestic Debt.
Domestic Interest Rates.
Durables.
Dynamic Economies.
Dynamic Emerging Economies.
Dynamic Emerging Markets.
Economic Crises.
Economic Development.
Economic Developments.
Economic Diversification.
Economic Growth.
Economic Integration.
Economic Outlook.
Economic Performance.
Economic Reforms.
Efficient Capital.
Emerging Economies.
Emerging Market Countries.
Emerging Market Economies.
Emerging Markets.
Energy Exports.
Energy Resources.
Energy Sector.
Enterprise Performance.
Equity.
Equity Markets.
Eurobond.
Excess Liquidity.
Exchange Rate.
Exchange Rate Movements.
Exchange Rate Policy.
Exchange Rate Regime.
Exchange Rate Regimes.
Exchange Rates.
Exchanges.
Expenditure.
Expenditures.
Export Diversification.
Exporters.
Exports.
Exposure.
Expropriation.
External Debt.
External Financing.
External Shocks.
External Tariffs.
Final Goods.
Finance.
Financial Assets.
Financial Crises.
Financial Crisis.
Financial Deepening.
Financial Development.
Financial Flows.
Financial Inflows.
Financial Infrastructure.
Financial Institutions.
Financial Instruments.
Financial Management.
Financial Markets.
Financial Reforms.
Financial Risk.
Financial Sector.
Financial Sector Development.
Financial Sector Infrastructure.
Financial Sectors.
Financial Sustainability.
Financial System.
Financial Systems.
Financial Transactions.
Fiscal Consolidation.
Fiscal Deficits.
Fiscal Policies.
Fiscal Policy.
Fiscal Reforms.
Fiscal Responsibility.
Fiscal Sustainability.
Fiscal Transparency.
Flexible Exchange Rate.
Flexible Exchange Rate Regime.
Flexible Exchange Rates.
Food Prices.
Foreclosure Procedures.
Foreign Banks.
Foreign Currency.
Foreign Direct Investment.
Foreign Exchange.
Foreign Exchange Reserve.
Foreign Financing.
Foreign Investment.
Foreign Investors.
Foreign Portfolio Investment.
Forward Contracts.
Full Disclosure.
Fund Management.
Future.
Gini Coefficient.
Global Markets.
Global Trade.
Globalization.
Good Governance.
Goods.
Governance.
Governance Indicators.
Governance Mechanisms.
Governance Practices.
Governance Reforms.
Government Action.
Government Intervention.
Government Ownership.
Government Papers.
Government Securities.
Government Spending.
Governments.
Gross Settlement Systems.
Growth Performance.
Growth Rates.
Hedge.
High Growth.
Holding.
Human Capital.
Human Capital Development.
Improving Governance.
Inadequate Disclosure.
Income.
Income Inequality.
Income Levels.
Incomes.
Inflation.
Inflation Rates.
Inflation Targeting.
Inflation Volatility.
Inflationary Pressures.
Informal Economy.
Infrastructure.
Infrastructure Financing.
Infrastructure Investment.
Infrastructure Projects.
Institutional Capacity.
Instruments.
Insurance.
Interbank Markets.
Interest.
Interest Rate Spreads.
Interest Rates.
Interests.
Intermediate Goods.
International Capital.
International Capital Markets.
International Economics.
International Financial Institutions.
International Reserves.
International Standards.
International Trade.
Investing.
Investment.
Investment Funds.
Investment Management.
Investment Projects.
Investment Purposes.
Investment Strategies.
Investments.
Investor Confidence.
Investor Interest.
Investor Participation.
Investors.
Issuance.
Issuance of Government Securities.
Job Creation.
Judicial Systems.
Labor Force.
Laws.
Legal Authority.
Legal Environments.
Legal Framework.
Legal Frameworks.
Legal Protection.
Legal Provisions.
Legislation.
Lender of Last Resort.
Lenders.
Lending.
Lending Decisions.
Level Playing Field.
Liberalization.
Liberties.
Life Insurance.
Liquidity.
Liquidity Management.
Liquidity Ratio.
Living Standards.
Loan Classification.
Loans.
Local Currencies.
Local Currency.
Local Financial Markets.
Local Governments.
Long-Term Debt.
Long-Term Resource.
Low Inflation.
Low-Income Countries.
Macroeconomic Environment.
Macroeconomic Fluctuations.
Macroeconomic Policies.
Macroeconomic Policy.
Macroeconomic Stability.
Macroeconomic Volatility.
Market Access.
Market Confidence.
Market Development.
Market Economies.
Market Economy.
Market Failures.
Market Integration.
Market Participants.
Market Reforms.
Market Structure.
Micro-Finance.
Microfinance.
Microfinance Institutions.
Middle-Income Countries.
Modern Financial System.
Monetary Authority.
Monetary Fund.
Monetary Policies.
Monetary Policy.
Monetary Transmission.
Money Laundering.
Money Markets.
Municipal Bonds.
National Currency.
National Savings.
Natural Resources.
New Markets.
Nominal Exchange Rate.
Nominal Interest Rates.
Nonbank Financial Institutions.
Nonperforming Loans.
Oil Prices.
Output.
Output Growth.
Ownership Structures.
Payment Systems.
Pension.
Pension Funds.
Pension Reforms.
Pension Systems.
Per Capita Income.
Permanent Income Hypothesis.
PIH.
Policy Response.
Political Economy.
Political Institutions.
Political Stability.
Political System.
Portfolio.
Portfolio Inflows.
Portfolio Investment.
Portfolios.
Poverty.
Poverty Alleviation.
Poverty Rates.
Poverty Reduction.
Price.
Price Discovery.
Price Movements.
Price Stability.
Price Volatility.
Prices.
Private Banks.
Private Entities.
Private Equity.
Private Pension.
Private Sector.
Private Sector Development.
Private Sector Growth.
Privatization.
Problem Banks.
Productive Investment.
Profitability.
Prudential Requirements.
Prudential Supervision.
Public.
Public Debt.
Public Debt Management.
Public Expenditure Management.
Public Goods.
Public Investment.
Public Investments.
Public Procurement.
Public Resources.
Public Sector.
Public Sector Management.
Public Sector Statistics.
Public Spending.
Purchasing Power.
Rapid Economic Growth.
Real Estate.
Real Exchange Rate.
Real Exchange Rates.
Real Interest Rates.
Real Time Gross Settlement.
Regional Integration.
Regional Trade.
Regional Trade Integration.
Regulators.
Regulatory Authorities.
Regulatory Bodies.
Regulatory Forbearance.
Remittances.
Reputation.
Reserve.
Reserve Requirements.
Reserves.
Resource Allocation.
Returns.
Revenue.
Revenue Performance.
Revenue Reform.
Revenues.
Risk.
Risk Assessments.
Risk Management.
Risk Weighting.
Rule of Law.
Safety Nets.
Savings.
Secondary Markets.
Securities.
Security.
Services.
Settlement Systems.
Share.
Share of Capital.
Shareholders.
Shares.
Short-Term Debt.
Skilled Workers.
Small Banks.
Social Safety Nets.
Specialization.
Spending.
Standard Deviation.
State Capture.
State Enterprises.
State Intervention.
Stock Exchanges.
Subsidies.
Subsidy.
Supervisory Framework.
Sustainable Development.
Sustainable Growth.
Tariff.
Tariffs.
Tax.
Tax Exemptions.
Tax Incentives.
Tax Policies.
Tax Policy.
Tax Regimes.
Tax Revenue.
Tax System.
Tax Systems.
Taxes.
Technical Assistance.
Terms of Trade.
Terms of Trade Shocks.
Terrorism.
Third World.
Trade.
Trade Costs.
Trade Integration.
Trade Openness.
Trading.
Transactions.
Transition Countries.
Transition Economies.
Transmission Mechanism.
Transparency.
Transparency Code.
Transparency Initiative.
Treasury.
Value.
Vested Interests.
Volatile Capital.
Volatility.
Warrants.
Withdrawal.
World Development Indicators.
Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Armenia.
Azerbaijan.
Georgia.
Kazakhstan.
Kyrgyzstan.
Middle East.
Middle East and Central Asia.
Tajikistan.
Turkmenistan.
Uzbekistan.
Summary:
The countries in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) have recorded significant macroeconomic achievements since independence. These countries have grown more rapidly-β€”on average by 7 percent over 1996–2011β€”-than those in many other regions of the world and poverty has declined. Inflation has come down sharply from high rates in the 1990s and interest rates have fallen. Financial sectors have deepened somewhat, as evidenced by higher deposits and lending. Fiscal policies were broadly successful in building buffers prior to the global crisis and those buffers were used effectively by many CCA countries to support growth and protect the most vulnerable as the crisis washed across the region. CCA oil and gas exporters have achieved significant improvements in living standards with the use of their energy wealth.
Notes:
Description based on print version record.
Contributor:
International Monetary Fund, Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Other format:
Print Version:
ISBN:
1484305140:
9781484305140
Publisher Number:
10.5089/9781484305140.087
Access Restriction:
Restricted for use by site license.
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