Finding the Nerve: The Story of Impedance Neurography discusses research that elucidates the nature of nerve simulation via externally applied electrical fields, and how it has led to an entirely new understanding of neuronal cell membrane biophysics and defined a novel nerve imaging technology. It details how these discoveries came about and the nature of research that derives from unexplained clinical observations. The primary technology, impedance neurography, is a wholly new way of nerve-specific visualization in 2-D or 3-D, with the ability to define both normal and abnormal functioning of nerves, heretofore unavailable from techniques such as MRI neurography. This is of particular importance with respect to the obesity epidemic where physicians performing nerve-related procedures cannot use ultrasound visualization due to the depth limitations of that technology.
Front Cover; Finding the Nerve; Finding the Nerve; Copyright; Dedication; Contents; Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction; REFERENCE; 1 Initial Impedance Neurography Findings: The TENS Technique and Nerve Stimulation Observations; IMPEDANCE NEUROGRAPHY REVEALS MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS; CONFUSING RESULTS REGARDING THE ROLES OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT IN EFFECTING ACTION POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT; GETTING BACK TO CURRENT AND VOLTAGE BASICS; ELECTRIC FIELDS IN NONHOMOGENOUS MATERIAL; APPLICATION OF ELECTRIC FIELD THEORY TO NERVE STIMULATION; EXAMPLES FROM THE CLINICAL REALM. STIMULATING NEEDLES ARE NOT POINT SOURCES IN SPACEREFERENCES; 2 Skin Surface Impedance; THE NATURE OF SKIN CONTACT SYSTEMS; SKIN SURFACE CONTACT AREA; MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES OF IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY AND IMPEDANCE NEUROGRAPHY; CONTACT IMPEDANCE; SKIN SURFACE IMPEDANCE INTEGRATION; A FINAL OBSERVATION FOR CONSIDERATION; REFERENCES; 3 The Varieties of Neuronal Cell Membrane Reactance: Nerves as RLC Circuits; ELECTRICAL MODELING OF NEURONAL CELL MEMBRANES; A BRIEF HISTORY OF ELECTROTONICS; DISCORDANT DATA EMERGE; A HARD LESSON; MYSTERY SOLVED: THE EUREKA OBSERVATION. The Nature of a Charged-Direct Current OffsetConsequences of Applying a Periodic Waveform on a Constant Current Flow Caused by a Charged-DC Offset; IMPROVEMENTS TO HIGH FREQUENCY STIMULATION; DISCRIMINATING NEURONAL SUBPOPULATIONS; The Relationship of the Time Constant to the Apparent Impedance; NEURONAL MEMBRANE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS AND ANISOTROPICITY; THE STRENGTH-DURATION RELATIONSHIP; INFORMED NERVE STIMULATOR DESIGN; EXTRACTING TISSUE TIME CONSTANTS; REFERENCES; 4 Anisotropicity; THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSUMPTIONS; A REVELATION; NERVES ALONE ARE IMAGED. THE HIERARCHY OF NERVE STRUCTURES IMAGEDREFERENCES; 5 Depth Determination of Peripheral Nerves Using Impedance Neurography; ELECTRODE SEPARATION DISTANCE CONSIDERATIONS; THE GOAL OF DEPTH DETERMINATION; DIMENSION FACTORS IN AXON IMPEDANCE; IMPEDANCE VERSUS ELECTRODE SPACING; THE LAST ISSUE FOR EFFECTIVE THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING; FUSION TECHNOLOGIES; REFERENCE; Index; A; B; C; D; E; H; I; K; M; N; O; p; S; T; W; Z; Epilogue; Backcover.