The art and science of social research / Deborah Carr, Boston University, Elizabeth Heger Boyle, University of Minnesota, Benjamin Cornwell, Cornell University, Shelley Correll, Stanford University, Robert Crosnoe, University of Texas at Austin, Jeremy Freese, Stanford University, Mary C. Waters, Harvard University.

Carr, Deborah S. author.
First edition.
New York : W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., [2018] , ©2018
xxix, 706 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
Social sciences -- Research.
Social sciences -- Research.
Note continued: Focus Groups
Sampling for Focus Groups
Running and Analyzing the Focus Group
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 12 Materials-Based Methods
Why Use Materials Rather Than People to Answer Sociological Questions?
From The Field To The Front Page: Blacks In Hollywood: "Are We Making Sure That Everyone Is Getting A Fair Shot?"
Materials Used in Materials-Based Methods
Expert Analyses
News Media
Other Media
Individual Accounts of Events
Physical Materials
Data Sets
Primary versus Secondary Information
Where Do Researchers Find Materials for Analyses?
Historical and Comparative Methods
History versus Historical Sociology
Steps in the Historical-Comparative Research Process
Content Analysis
Quantitative Content Analysis
Critical Content Analysis
Quantitative Data Analysis in Materials-Based Research
Conversations From The Front Lines: Hollie Nyseth Brehm
Steps in Materials-Based Research with Secondary Quantitative Data Sets
Limitations of Materials-Based Methods
Barriers to Access
Potential Shortcomings in Materials
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 13 Social Network Analysis
What Is a Social Network?
Social Network Concepts
Network-Structural Characteristics
Network Actor Characteristics
Network Tie Characteristics
Social Network Study Design Issues
Boundary Specification
Sociocentric and Egocentric Designs
Data Organization
One- and Two-Mode Designs
Collecting Social Network Data
Direct Observation
Archival Data
Online Social Networks
Network Analysis Software
Respondents as Social Network Informants
Name Generators
Conversations From The Front Lines: Edward O. Laumann
Free-Choice versus Fixed-Choice Generators
Visual Aids
Name Interpreters
Sources of Bias in Social Network Studies
Instrument Bias
Recall Bias
Projection Bias
Respondent and Interviewer Fatigue
From The Field To The Front Page: Is Divorce Contagious?
Selection Bias
Pseudo-Network Data
Position and Resource Generators
Social Network Indices
Assessing Social Network Change
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 14 Univariate and Bivariate Analysis of Quantitative Data
Statistics and Quantitative Data Analysis
Univariate Analysis
Measures of Central Tendency
Variation across Observations
Margin of Error
From The Field To The Front Page: How To Use Statistics To Root Out Cheating
Bivariate Analysis
Cross-Tabulating Categorical Variables
Comparing Conditional Means
Regression Analysis
Describing Trends
Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys and Panel Surveys
Age Effects and Period Effects
Conversations From The Front Lines: Tom W. Smith
Putting Numbers in Context: Which Statistics Should You Believe?
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 15 Multivariate and Advanced Quantitative Methods
Significance Testing
Association (Correlation)
The Null Hypothesis and p-Values
Determining Statistical Significance
Statistical Significance and Samples
Statistical Significance versus Practical Significance
Concerns about Significance Testing
Confounding Factors
Using Elaboration to Address Confounding
Using Regression Analysis with a Control Variable
Regression Analysis with Many Control Variables
Conversations From The Front Lines: David Grusky
How Do Researchers Choose Control Variables?
The Problem of Unmeasured and Incorrectly Measured Differences
Reverse Causality
From The Field To The Front Page: The United States: A Lonely Society?
Moderators and Mediators
Moderating Variables
Mediating Variables
Mediation versus Confounding
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 16 Analysis of Qualitative Data
Qualitative Data Analysis: Product and Process
Types of Qualitative Research
Approaches to Causality in Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative Comparative Analysis
Processes and Mechanisms
Induction, Abduction, and Deduction
Inductive Approaches: Grounded Theory
Alternatives to Grounded Theory: Abductive Research and the Extended Case Study Approach
Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis
Managing and Preparing the Data
Becoming Familiar with and Reducing the Data
Coding the Data
Coding and Analysis
Stage 1: Preparing the Data with Attribute and Index Codes
Stage 2: Applying Analytic Codes
Stage 3: Building and Testing Models
Conversations From The Front Lines: Debra Umberson
Writing the Final Report
From The Field To The Front Page: The Faces Behind Trump's Rise
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 17 Communicating Social Science Research Findings
Sharing Your Results with Academic Audiences
Research Reports
Research Proposals
Oral Presentations
Beyond the Academy: Reaching Out to Broader Audiences
Evaluation Reports
Government Reports
Policy Briefs
The Path to Publication: The Peer-Review Process
Step 1: The Author Decides Where to Send His or Her Work
Step 2: The Editor Decides whether to Send the Written Work Out for Peer Review
From The Field To The Front Page: Predatory Journal Publishes "Study" Based On Sitcom
Step 3: Peer Reviewers, Selected by the Editor, Evaluate the Written Work
Step 4: The Author Revises and Resubmits the Work
Tips for Effective Writing
Getting Organized: Using Outlines Effectively
Conversations From The Front Lines: Jane E. Miller
The Importance of Clarity, Precision, and Readability
Academic Integrity: Giving Credit Where Credit Is Due
End-of-Chapter Review
A. Sample Consent Form
B. American Sociological Association Code of Ethics
C. Examples of Widely Used Survey Data Sets
D. Template for Reading, Summarizing, and Identifying Key Contributions of Research Articles
E. Influential Peer-Reviewed Journals in Sociology
F. Random Numbers Table
G. Chi Square Table
H. Normal Distribution.
Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 The Art and Science of Social Research: An Introduction
Sociological Perspectives: An Overview
Agency versus Structure
Adopting a Sociological Imagination
Attention to Differences and Hierarchies
How Does Sociology Resemble-and Differ from-Other Social Sciences?
Types of Social Science Research
Basic versus Applied Research
Conversations From The Front Lines: The Authors Of The Art And Science Of Social Research
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Study Designs
From The Field To The Front Page: Social Media Use And Social Isolation Among Young Adults
Unit of Analysis
Starting the Research Process: Choosing a Question and Setting Goals
Asking Questions
Conversations From The Front Lines: The Authors Of The Art And Science Of Social Research
Research Goals: Description, Exploration, and Explanation
Overview of This Book
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 2 Research Foundations: Linking Sociological Theory to Research
Theory within the Scientific Method
Purposes of Theory
Level of Abstraction in Theory
Commonalities among Theories
Use of Theory in Research
Conversations From The Front Lines: Barbara Schneider, Eliza Pavalko, And Gary Alan Fine
Social Science Theory
Scientific Paradigms
From The Field To The Front Page: When Paradigms Clash: The Rising Age At First Marriage
Selected Sociological Paradigms
Different Paradigms, Different Insights: Higher Education
The Elements of Theory
Relations among Concepts
Goals, Hypotheses, and Questions
Measurement of the Elements of Theory
From Theory to Empirical Study and Back
Identifying an Important Question That Needs an Answer
Constructing a Hypothesis about the Answer to the Question at Hand
Gathering Data, Analyzing Data, and Drawing Conclusions
Going through the Steps
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 3 Ethical Issues in Social Science Research
Three Ethical Dilemmas
A Facebook Study: Accessing Friends' Data without Permission
Gang Leader for a Day: Lying to Drug Dealers
Human Terrain System: Military Studies of Local People
Defining Research Ethics
A Brief History of Ethical Problems in Research
Experiments and Torture at Nazi Concentration Camps
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: Deliberate Harm
The 1950s to 1970s: Four Controversial Studies
The Institutional Review Board System
How the IRB Works
Assessing Risks and Benefits
Controversy over IRBs
Professional Codes of Ethics
Privacy and Confidentiality
The Challenges of Digital Data
Conversations From The Front Lines: Roberto Gonzales
The Census and Confidentiality
Genetic Material and Confidentiality
From The Field To The Front Page: Ethical Breaches At The U.S. Census Bureau
Deception in Research
Conflicts of Interest
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 4 From Concepts to Models: Hypotheses, Operationalization, and Measurement
Defining and Measuring Poverty: An Introduction to Conceptualization and Operationalization
Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Poverty
Which Comes First, Conceptualization or Operationalization?
Concepts and Variables
Units of Analysis
Types of Variables
From The Field To The Front Page: The Fab Five And The Acting White Theory
Field of Study
Mismatches between Units of Analysis: Ecological Fallacies and Reductionism
Conversations From The Front Lines: Kathryn Edin & Peggy C. Giordano
Assessing Measurement: Reliability and Validity
Time Span
Completing the Research Process
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 5 Evaluating Research: Reliability and Validity
Thinking about Reliability and Validity: Measuring and Tracking Poverty
Defining Reliability and Validity
Calculating Reliability
Reliability in Design
Conversations From The Front Lines: Krista Perreira
Precision in Design
Testing Robustness
Reliability and the Possibility of Error
Internal Validity
External Validity
Linking Internal and External Validity
From The Field To The Front Page: Milgram In The Age Of Reality Tv
Statistical Validity
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 6 Sampling Strategies
Using Samples to Describe Populations
A Cautionary Tale: The Literary Digest Poll
Probability Samples and Random Choice
Target Populations, Parameters, and Censuses
Advantages of Probability Sampling
Margin of Error
Probability Sampling in Practice
Simple Random Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Stratified Sampling
When Nonrepresentative Samples Are Useful
The Benefits of Nonrepresentative Samples
Nonrepresentative Samples and Generalizability
From The Field To The Front Page: "Do Children Of Same-Sex Parents Really Fare Worse?"
Sampling in Case-Oriented Research
Selecting Cases
Sequential Sampling
Conversations From The Front Lines: Eszter Hargittai
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 7 Survey Research
What Are Surveys and What Can They Do?
Respondents and Key Informants
Survey Formats
Timing of Surveys
Strengths of Surveys
Challenges of Survey Research
Types of Surveys: Modes of Administration
Face-to-Face Interviews
Telephone Surveys
Mail Surveys
From The Field To The Front Page: Researchers Use Survey Methods To Count Transgender Youth
Internet-Based Surveys
Mixed-Mode Approaches
Survey Content: What Do We Ask and How Do We Ask It?
Types of Questions
Characteristics of High-Quality Questions
"Tried and True" Questions versus Designing New Questions
Placement of Questions
Conducting the Survey
Pretesting the Survey
Conducting Preliminary Data Analysis
Conversations From The Front Lines: Pamela Herd
Going into the Field
Ethical Concerns in Survey Research
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 8 Experimental Research
Key Features of Experiments
Manipulation of the Independent Variable
Random Assignment of Participants to Experimental and Control Conditions
Experimental Control of Other Factors
Advantages of Experiments
Establishing Causality
Uncovering Mechanisms That Produce Discrimination
Testing Abstract Theories: How Do Status Beliefs Form?
Conversations From The Front Lines: William T. Bielby
Types of Experiments
Laboratory Experiments
Field Experiments
Population-Based Survey Experiments
From The Field To The Front Page: Audit Study Reveals Hiring Discrimination Against Muslims
Natural Experiments
Designing a Laboratory Experiment
Creating the Setting
Manipulating the Independent Variable
Measuring the Dependent Variable
Wrapping Up the Experiment
The Experimental Method: Ethical Issues and Limitations
Ethical Issues Involving Experiments
Limitations of the Experimental Method
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 9 Evaluation Research
What Is Evaluation Research?
Conducting Evaluation Research
Formulating the Evaluation Question
Measuring the Desired Outcome
Implementing the Intervention and Assessing Its Effects
Research Methods Used in Evaluation Research
Randomized Field Experiments
Quasi-Experimental Methods
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Conversations From The Front Lines: Erin Kelly
Translating Evaluation Research into Large Social Programs
Two Examples of Evaluation Research
Tennessee Class-Size Experiment
Title V, Section
Abstinence Education Program
The Challenges of Evaluation Research: Ethical, Logistical, and Political Concerns
Ethical Concerns
Logistical Issues
From The Field To The Front Page: Is It Ethical To Deny People A Home Base?
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 10 Ethnography
Ethnography: Historical Roots
The Diverse Roles of the Ethnographer
Complete Participant
Participant Observer
From The Field To The Front Page: The Dark Side Of A Party Culture
Covert Observer
What Topics Do Ethnographers Study?
Theory and Research in Ethnography
Approaches to Theory in Ethnography
Validity and Reliability in Ethnographic Research
Conducting an Ethnographic Field Study
Choosing a Topic
Negotiating Access, or "Getting In"
Conversations From The Front Lines: Alice Goffman
Interacting with Subjects
Producing Data: Field Notes
Leaving the Field
Writing the Ethnography
Contemporary Developments in Ethnography
Ethnography in Business
Visual Ethnography
Team Ethnography
End-of-Chapter Review
ch. 11 In-Depth Interviewing
What Topics Do Interviewers Study?
Types of In-Depth Interviews
Oral Histories
Life History Interviews
Cognitive Interviews
How to Conduct an Interview Study
Sampling: Deciding Whom to Interview
Conversations From The Front Lines: Christine L. Williams
Writing an Interview Schedule
Conducting the Interview
After the Interview: Writing Field Notes and Transcribing
Validity and Reliability in In-Depth Interviews
From The Field To The Front Page: Helpful Or Hurtful? Pushing Kids To Develop Competitive Capital
Includes bibliographical references (pages 648-681) and index.
Boyle, Elizabeth Heger, 1962- author.
Cornwell, Benjamin, author.
Correll, Shelley Joyce, author.
Crosnoe, Robert, author.
Freese, Jeremy, author.
Waters, Mary C., author.
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