Franklin

Quantitative ecotoxicology [e-book] / Michael C. Newman.

Author/Creator:
Newman, Michael C.
Edition:
2nd ed.
Publication:
Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 2012, c2013.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (xxi, 570 p. ) ill.
Subjects:
Pollution -- Environmental aspects -- Measurement.
Environmental toxicology -- Mathematics.
Form/Genre:
Electronic books.
Language:
English
Summary:
This text provides a quantitative treatment of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters consider fundamental concepts and definitions essential to understanding the fate and effects of toxicants at various levels of ecological organization as covered in the remaining chapters. Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author's previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment . Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere-and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What's New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author's previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment . Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere-and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What's New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques
Contents:
Introduction Ecotoxicology as a Scientific Discipline Toxicants and Biosphere Toxicant Effects in Ecosystems Toxicant Fate in Ecosystems Organization of Knowledge Based on Explanatory Principles Bayesian Inference Toward Strongest Possible Inference and Clear Ecological Relevance References The Measurement Process General Regions of Quantitation Blank Correction Accuracy and Precision Variance Structure Sample Size Outliers Summary References Bioaccumulation General Modeling Bioaccumulation: General Approach Modeling Bioaccumulation: Alternative Approaches Intrinsic Factors Affecting Bioaccumulation Summary References Lethal and Other Quantal Responses to Stress General Dose-Response at a Set Endpoint Time to Death Quantifying the Effects of Extrinsic Factors Quantifying Effects of Intrinsic Factors Toxicant Mixtures Summary References Statistical Tests for Detection of Chronic Lethal and Sublethal Stress General Method Selection One-Way Analysis of Variance Test of Normality: Shapiro-Wilk's Test Test for Homogeneity of Variances: Bartlett's Test Treatment Means Compared to the Control Mean Monotonic Trend: Williams's Test Steel's Multiple Treatment-Control Rank Sum Test Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test with Bonferroni's Adjustment A Second Look at Statistical Testing Inferring Biological Significance from Statistical Significance Summary References Population and Metapopulation Effects General Epidemiology Population Size Demography Spatial Distribution of Individuals Population Genetics Summary References Community Effects General Simple Species Interactions Community Structure and Function Composite Indices Metacommunities Trophic Exchange Summary References Summary Application Facilitating Growth of the Science References Appendices Appendix 1: Factors for Estimating Standard Deviation and Control Limits for Range Appendix 2: One-Sample Tolerance Probability Comparisons between n m * and n m Appendix 3: Critical Values of T Used to Test for Single Outliers (One-Sided Test) Appendix 4: Critical Values for ? Used to Test for Multiple Outliers (a = 0.05) Appendix 5: Response Metameters for Proportion Affected Appendix 6: Maximum Likelihood Values for Dixon's Up-and-Down Method Appendix 7: E Values Used to Estimate 95% Confidence Intervals for LT50 with the Litchfield Method Appendix 8: Coefficients ( a n-i+1 ) for Shapiro-Wilk's Test for Normality Appendix 9: Percentage Points of Shapiro-Wilk's W Test for Normality Appendix 10: Dunnett's t for One-Sided Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for a = 0.05 Appendix 11: Dunnett's t for Two-Sided Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for a = 0.05 Appendix 12: Bonferroni's Adjusted t Values for One-Sided Test and a = 0.01 Appendix 13: Bonferroni's Adjusted t Values for One-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 14: Bonferroni's Adjusted t Values for Two-Sided Test and a = 0.01 Appendix 15: Bonferroni's Adjusted t Values for Two-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 16: Dunn-Sidak's t for Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for a = 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 (One-Sided Test) Appendix 17: Dunn-Sidak's t for Comparisons between p Treatment Means and a Control for a = 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 (Two-Sided Test) Appendix 18: Williams's t i , a for w = 1 and Extrapolation t (Superscript) for a One-Sided Test and a = 0.01 Appendix 19: Williams's t i , a for w = 1 and Extrapolation t (Superscript) for a One-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 20: Williams's t i , a for w = 1 and Extrapolation t (Superscript) for a Two-Sided Test and a = 0.01 Appendix 21: Williams's t i , a for w = 1 and Extrapolation t (Superscript) for a Two-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 22: Significant Values of Steel's Rank Sums for a One-Sided Test with a = 0.05 or 0.01 Appendix 23: Significant Values of Steel's Rank Sums for a Two-Sided Test with a = 0.05 or 0.01 Appendix 24: Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney) Rank-Sum Test Critical Values with Bonferroni's Adjustments: One-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 25: Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test Critical Values with Bonferroni's Adjustments: Two-Sided Test and a = 0.05 Appendix 26: SAS Code for Implementing the Jonckheere-Terpstra Test Appendix 27: Balancing a, , and Effect Size (ES) Appendix 28: Basic Matrix Methods Appendix 29: Values of ? Used for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Mean and Standard Deviation of Truncated Data Index
Notes:
Formerly CIP.
Electronic reproduction. Askews and Holts. Mode of access: World Wide Web.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN:
0-429-10606-8
1-4398-3565-9
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