Materials for infrared windows and domes : properties and performance / Daniel C. Harris.

Harris, Daniel C., 1948- author
Bellingham, Wash. : SPIE, [c1999]
SPIE monograph ; PM70.
SPIE Press monograph ; PM70
1 online resource (xi, 415 pages) : illustrations, digital file.
Guided missiles -- Optical equipment.
Infrared detectors.
Noses (Aircraft)
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
This text provides a comprehensive introduction to infrared-transparent materials for windows and domes that must withstand harsh environmental conditions, such as high-speed flight or high-temperature process monitoring. Each section contains introductory material that makes the book readable by anyone with a background in science or engineering.
0. The heat of the night and the dust of the battlefield
0.1. Electromagnetic spectrum and atmospheric transmission
0.2. Blackbody radiation
0.3. Transmission through rain, snow, fog and dust
1. Optical properties of infrared windows
1.1. A day in the life of a photon
1.2. Refraction and refractive index. 1.2.1. Birefringence; 1.2.2. Preference for cubic materials; 1.2.3. Reproducibility of the refractive index
1.3. Reflection and transmission. 1.3.1. Transmission of an absorbing window; 1.3.2. Etalon effect
1.4. Optical constants: n and k
1.5. General behavior of absorption coefficient and refractive index
1.6. Transmission spectra of infrared materials
1.7. Measuring the absorption coefficient. 1.7.1. Direct transmittance measurements; 1.7.2. Laser calorimetry
1.8. Emissivity
1.9. Effect of temperature on absorption and emission
1.10. Free carrier absorption in semiconductors
1.11. What makes a window midwave or long wave?
1.12. "Two-color" materials
2. Optical performance of infrared windows
2.1. Resolution
2.2. Scatter
2.3. Modulation transfer function: a measure of imaging quality
2.4. Degradation of infrared sensing by a hot window. 2.4.1. Emittance from a hot window; 2.4.2. Temperature gradients in windows
2.5. Frequency doubling
2.6. Microwave transmission properties of infrared materials
3. Mechanical properties
3.1. Elastic constants
3.2. Measuring the strength of brittle materials. 3.2.1. 3-point and 4-point flexure tests; 3.2.2. Equibiaxial disk flexure test
3.3. Ceramics fracture at pre-existing flaws. 3.3.1. Stress concentration by cracks; 3.3.2. Strain rate dependence of strength
3.4. Weibull statistics. 3.4.1. The Weibull distribution; 3.4.2. Safety factors
3.5. Strength scales with area (or volume) under stress
3.6. Strengths of optical ceramics. 3.6.1. Strength is not an intrinsic property of a material; 3.6.2. Temperature dependence of strength
3.7. Window and dome design. 3.7.1. Designing a circular window; 3.7.2. Designing a dome
3.8. Hardness and fracture toughness. 3.8.1. Relation of strength to fracture toughness and grain size; 3.8.2. Temperature dependence of hardness and fracture toughness
4. Thermal properties
4.1. Thermal expansion and heat capacity
4.2. Thermal conductivity
4.3. Thermal shock. 4.3.1. Hasselman figures of merit; 4.3.2. Klein figure of merit for minimum thickness dome; 4.3.3. Mach-altitude limits for a dome
4.4. Aerodynamic domes
4.5. Thermal stability of window materials
5. Fabrication of infrared materials
5.1. Classes of infrared materials. 5.1.1. Glass-ceramics
5.2. Fabrication of polycrystalline materials by powder processing. 5.2.1. Yttria: an example of dome fabrication from a powder; 5.2.2. Methods of densifying ceramics: sintering, hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing; 5.2.3. Annealing
5.3. Chemical vapor deposition. 5.3.1. Zinc sulfide and zinc selenide; 5.3.2. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride
5.4. Single-crystal materials. 5.4.1. Gallium arsenide, gallium phosphide, germanium and silicon; 5.4.2. Sapphire; 5.4.3. Hot forging
5.5. Optical finishing. 5.5.1. Scratch/dig specifications; 5.5.2. Optical polishing
5.6. The effect of surface finish on mechanical strength
5.7. Polymer infrared windows
6. Optical coatings
6.1 Antireflection coatings. 6.1.1. Moth eye surfaces; 6.1.2. Interference fringes for measuring coating thickness; 6.1.3. Adherence of coatings; 6.1.4. Emittance from coatings; 6.1.5. Rugate filters
6.2. Stress in coatings
6.3. Conductive coatings for electromagnetic shielding
7. Erosion and Erosion Protection
7.1. Rainfall characteristics
7.2. The raindrop impact event
7.3. Raindrop damage threshold velocity. 7.3.1. Threshold velocity for fracture or loss of mechanical strength; 7.3.2. Threshold velocity for loss of optical transmission or contrast; 7.3.3. Threshold velocity for loss of mass
7.4. Rain erosion test facilities. 7.4.1. Whirling arm; 7.4.2. Single-impact waterjet; 7.4.3. Multiple-impact jet apparatus (MIJA); 7.4.4. Single-drop impact testing
7.5. Aerodynamic effects in rain erosion
7.6. Erosion by solid particles. 7.6.1. Combined effects of sand and rain
7.7. Effect of angle of incidence on erosion. 7.7.1. Waterdrop impact at inclined angles; 7.7.2. Sand impact at inclined angles; 7.7.3. Comparative erosion testing of materials
7.8. Protective coatings for erosion. 7.8.1. Mechanisms of protection by coatings; 7.8.2. Diamond-like carbon and germanium-carbon coatings; 7.8.3. "Boron phosphide" and other phosphorus-based coatings; 7.8.4. "REP" coating; 7.8.5. Claddings; 7.8.6. Diamond coatings
8. Proof testing
8.1. Case study: proof testing of zinc selenide. 8.1.1. An example of an unsuccessful proof test
8.2. What is the stress intensity factor?
8.3. Slow crack growth
8.4. The theory of proof testing. 8.4.1. How strength changes during a proof test; 8.4.2. A theoretical example: proof testing of sapphire
8.5. Designing a proof test for the space shuttle window. 8.5.1. Minimum time to failure after a proof test; 8.5.2. Crack growth parameters for space shuttle window material; 8.5.3. Proof test design
8.6. Fatigue
9. Optical-quality CVD diamond
9.1. What is diamond and how is it made?. 9.1.1. Chemical vapor deposition of diamond; 9.1.2. The two surfaces of CVD diamond
9.2. Mechanical and thermal properties of diamond. 9.2.1. Hardness, toughness and elastic properties; 9.2.2. Mechanical strength; 9.2.3. Thermal expansion; 9.2.4. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity; 9.2.5. Commercial grades of CVD diamond
9.3. Optical properties of diamond. 9.3.1. Absorption and scatter; 9.3.2. Refractive index; 9.3.3. Microwave properties of diamond
9.4. Diamond windows and domes. 9.4.1. Polishing diamond; 9.4.2. Mechanical and erosion performance; 9.4.3. Oxidation of diamond; 9.4.4. Prospects
Appendix A: Physical constants and conversion factors
Appendix B: Suppliers of infrared materials and sources of information
Appendix C: Optical properties of infrared materials
Appendix D: Definitions from radiometry
Appendix E: Elastic constants
Appendix F: The Weibull distribution
Appendix G: Thermal properties of selected materials
"SPIE digital library."
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.
9780819481016 (electronic)
0819434825 (print)
9780819459787 (print)
Publisher Number:
10.1117/3.349896 doi
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