Since 2001-2002, standards-based accountability (SBA) provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) have shaped the work of public school teachers and administrators in the United States. NCLB requires each state to develop content and achievement standards in several subjects, administer tests to measure students' progress toward these standards, develop targets for performance on these tests, and impose a series of interventions on schools and districts that do not meet the targets. Many states had such systems in place before NCLB took effect, but, since 2001-2002, every state in the United States has had to develop and implement an SBA system that met the requirements of the law, and its provisions have affected every public school and district in the nation. This book sheds light on how accountability policies have influenced attitudes and been translated into actions at the district, school, and classroom levels in three states, with a focus on mathematics and science. SBA is leading to an increased emphasis on student achievement, and many educators laud this focus, but a single-minded emphasis on student proficiency on tests has some potentially negative consequences such as narrowing curriculum and declining staff morale.
Cover Preface Contents Figures Tables Summary Acknowledgments Chapter One - Introduction Standards-Based Accountability Evidence Concerning SBA Effectiveness How SBA Is Supposed to Work District and School Responses to Accountability Classroom Practice Opinions and Attitudes Barriers and Capacity Evidence Concerning No Child Left Behind How the Monograph Is Organized Chapter Two - Study Design and Methods Sampling Instrumentation Data Collection Analyses Technical Notes Chapter Three - SBA Systems in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania Introduction Prior Accountability Systems State Academic Content Standards State Testing Programs Adequate Yearly Progress Definitions AYP Status of Schools Specific AYP Targets Missed by Schools State Awards State Technical Assistance Implementing NCLB's Highly Qualified Teacher Provisions Summary Chapter Four - Educators' Opinions About Standards, Assessments, and Accountability State Content Standards State Assessments Adequate Yearly Progress The Effects of Accountability Summary Chapter Five - School and District Improvement Strategies School Improvement Strategies Data-Based Decisionmaking Curriculum and Instructional Alignment Activities Targeting Low-Performing Students Other School Improvement Strategies District and State Technical Assistance Summary Chapter Six - Instructional Practices Related to Standards and Assessments Changes in Time Spent on Tested and Nontested Subjects Alignment of Instruction with State Standards and Assessments Effects of State Tests on Practices Instructional Activities in Mathematics and Science Summary Chapter Seven - Perceived Barriers to School Improvement Funding Instructional Resources Staffing. Skills and Knowledge Professional Development Instructional and Planning Time Conditions Outside of School Students with Special Needs or Limited English Proficiency Changes in Policy and Leadership Summary Chapter Eight - Conclusions and Implications Key Findings Implications Conclusions Appendix A - Sampling and Survey Responses Appendix B - Supplementary Tables Appendix C - Superintendent, Principal, and Teacher Surverys References.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.