The WTO, Agriculture and Sustainable Development.

Wohlmeyer, Heinrich.
Sheffield : Taylor & Francis Group, 2002.
1 online resource (365 pages)
1st ed.

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Other records:
World Trade Organization.
Sustainable development.
Agriculture -- Economic aspects.
Electronic books.
Identifies the strengths and weaknesses of liberalized world trade, in particular in the agricultural sector, and investigates to which extent the current WTO agreements provide the devices to react to trade-related negative impacts on sustainability, environmental protection and food security.
Half Title
1. Preliminary issues and basic considerations
The intellectual co-ordinates
The development of foreign trade policy
Basic assumptions and their validity
Transport and world trade
The indispensable interdisciplinary viewpoint
The systems theory perspective
The ecological perspective
The human biology perspective
Appropriate technology
Ethics and the legal code
Further aspects
SECTION 1: The current performance of the world trade system and the World Trade Organisation
2. The present legal basis of the world trade system
The establishment of the World Trade Organisation
The starting point
The failure of the International Trade Organisation
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as an intermediate solution
From the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to the World Trade Organisation
The present scope of the World Trade Organisation
The World Trade Organisation as an institution
The individual bodies
Decision-making and dispute settlement
General World Trade Organisation regulations
Mutual goals
The most-favoured nation principle
The national treatment principle
The principle of reciprocity
The removal or reduction of trade barriers
Allowances for developing countries
Environmental protection
Environmental protection regulations found within World Trade Organisation agreements
Environmentally relevant aspects and the interpretation and application of World Trade Organisation stipulations
The consequences of the new World Trade Organisation orientation for the future world trade system
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The general regulations
The supplementary agreements.
The General Agreement on Trade in Services
Basic principles
Improvement of market access
Institutional regulations
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
The plurilateral agreements
The Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft
The Agreement on Government Procurement
The Agreement on Agriculture
Scope of the Agreement
Market access
The reduction of domestic support
The reduction of export subsidies
Further regulations
Free-trade market versus special interests
The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Scope of the Agreement
The Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
The definition of subsidies
Dispute settlement procedure
The position of developing countries
The institutions
The necessity for further negotiations
3. The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and basic aspects of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
Scope of applicability of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
The principle of necessity
Prohibition of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination
International standards and the permissibility of higher national standards
Obligation to use the least trade-restrictive measure
The precautionary principle
Other important provisions and transparency
Some important conclusions
The relevance of international standards
The scientific backing of measures
Harmonisation and mutual recognition within the field of technical barriers to trade
4. The producer support estimate and the aggregate measure of support: suitable gauges for evaluating agricultural and trade policy?.
Assumption 1: the same production strategies are assumed to be sensible for all the different agricultural systems on the Earth
Assumption 2: all public interventions in the market are undesirable eo ipso
Assumption 3: all public compensation falls into the category of undesirable support, even if it involves public funds paid as compensation for performance in the interest of the general public
The producer support estimate
The aggregate measure of support
SECTION 2: The theory of international trade
5. A few remarks on trade theory
A brief outline of trade theory
The role of competition
International trade and externalities
Does free trade prevent an efficient level of environmental and social standards?
Theoretical considerations
Empirical evidence
6. Free trade and its effects: some critical comments
Carrying capacity, ecosystem resilience and international trade
Is international trade harmful or beneficial for the environment?
Links between trade and growth
The delinking of the income-environment relationship
The environmental Kuznets-curve hypothesis
Concluding remarks
SECTION 3: International trade: agricultural and environmental aspects
7. International trade on the rise: a brief introduction
8. Sustainability: a challenge for future economic and social policy
A short history of the term 'sustainability'
Substantive dimensions of sustainability and their significance for agriculture
A working suggestion for the definition of sustainability: can organic farming be seen as a synonym for sustainable agriculture?
9. Agriculture, trade and the environment
10. The special case of agriculture.
Arguments for and against the special treatment of agriculture
Arguments in favour of protecting agriculture
Social justice
National macroeconomic goals
Control of market structures
11. Reasons for measures aimed at the stabilisation of production and markets in the agricultural sector
12. Important factors influencing future scenarios regarding food supplies,world population and environment
Securing food supplies: a global political challenge
Food security is not simply a problem of the quantity produced
Development of world population and food security
13. Environmental issues and their significance for agriculture and the food industry
Environmental management: a challenge for international co-operation
Problems of agriculture and the food industry: an issue not exclusively concerning world trade
Soils: the very basis for agriculture and the food industry
The current situation
Availability of agricultural area and the potential for improved yields
Soil degradation as a cause of productivity decreases
Water as an environmental factor in agriculture and plant production
The current situation
Marked increase in the use of fresh water for agricultural purposes
Water: a basic and often over-used resource
14. Analysis of current developments in international agricultural trade
Remarks concerning the procedure and the database
Developments of world trade in major agricultural products since the completion of the Uruguay Round
Coarse grains
Results and conclusions
Effects of the Uruguay Round
Key players and their interests
15. The World Trade Organisation and Agenda 2000.
The core and the tragedy of Agenda 2000
Basic orientation: the core
Conflicting objectives
Required initiatives
Initiatives required at an international level
Improved private market organisation at the EU level
A closer relationship between humankind, nature and environmental protection
Supporting initiatives on a domestic level
Remarks on the agricultural trade conflict
Alliance with the developing countries
Federal Agricultural Improvement Act 1996 and Agenda 2000
Position of the Cairns Group
What will be the future agricultural paradigm?
SECTION 4: Theoretical propositions for harmonising sustainable agriculture and free trade
16. Solutions within the existing theoretical framework: environmental and trade policy measures
Interlinkages between agricultural and environmental policy: or, why environmental policy measures are relevant in agricultural policy
Agricultural policy goals
Environmental policy goals
Policy goals and solutions
Embedding the two policy fields of environment and agriculture into the world trade system
Policy instruments suitable for guiding agriculture towards sustainability and in conformity with the present world trade order
Fiscal measures
Non-fiscal measures
17. Ecological economics as a new integrative approach
18. Conclusions and proposals for solutions
Necessary further development of the legal framework and its application
Basic orientations
The necessity of external guardrails
The World Trade Organisation in development: illustrative panel decisions
The indispensability of framework agreements
Legal development through case law and authentic interpretation
Improving the acknowledgement of social, health and environmental aspects
Essential problems.
Does the World Trade Organisation limit an effective environmental policy?.
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Local notes:
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Quendler, Theodor.
Other format:
Print version: Wohlmeyer, Heinrich The WTO, Agriculture and Sustainable Development