This book will give readers a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of power system analysis and their applications. Both the basic and advanced topics have been thoroughly explained and supported through several solved examples. Important Features of the Book Load Flow and Optimal System Operation have been discussed in detail. Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of Isolated and Interconnected Power Systems have been discussed and explained clearly. AGC in Restructured Environment of Power System has been Introduced. Sag and Tension Analysis have been discussed in detail. Contains over 150 illustrative examples, practice problems and objective-type questions, that will assist the reader. With all these features, this is an indispensable text for graduate and postgraduate electrical engineering students. GATE, AMIE and UPSC engineering services along with practicing engineers would also find this book extremely useful.
Cover Preface Contents Chapter 1. Structure of Power Systems and Few Other Aspects 1.1 Power Systems 1.2 Reasons for Interconnection 1.3 Load Characteristics 1.4 Power Factor of Various Equipments 1.5 Basic Definitions of Commonly Used Terms 1.6 Relationship Between Load Factor (LF) and Loss Factor (LLF) 1.7 Load Growth 1.8 Multiphase Systems 1.9 Disadvantages of Low Power Factor 1.10 Various Causes of Low Power Factor Chapter 2. Resistance and Inductance of Transmission Lines 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Line Resistance 2.3 Inductance-Basic Concepts 2.4 Inductance of a Single Conductor 2.5 Inductance Due to External Flux Linkage 2.6 Inductance of a Single Phase Two Wire Line 2.7 Self and Mutual Inductances 2.8 Type of Conductors 2.9 Inductance of Composite Conductors 2.10 Inductance of Three Phase Transmission Lines with Symmertrical Spacing 2.11 Transpose Transmission Line 2.12 Inductance of Three Phase Double Circuit Lines 2.13 Bundled Conductors Chapter 3. Capacitance of Transmission Lines 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Electric Field and Potential Difference 3.2 Potential Difference in an Array of Solid Cylindrical Conductors 3.3 Capacitance of a Single Phase Line 3.4 Capacitance of Three Phase Transmission Lines 3.5 Bundled Conductors 3.6 Capacitance of Three Phase Double Circuit Lines 3.7 Effect of Earth on the Capacitance 3.8 Capacitance of a Single Phase Line Considering The Effect of Earth Chapter 4. Synchronous Machine: Steady State and Transient Operations 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Synchronous Generator 4.3 Model of Generator 4.4 Power Angle Characteristics 4.5 Salient Pole Synchronous Generators 4.6 Transients of Synchronous Machine 4.7 Simplified Reprsentation of Synchronouse Machine for Transient Analysis. 4.8 DC Components of Stator Currents 4.9 Effect of Load Current Chapter 5. Power System Components and Per Unit System 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Single Phase Representation of a Balanced Three Phase System 5.3 the Per-Unit (pu) System 5.4 Per-Unit Representation of Transformer 5.5 Methods of Voltage Control Chapter 6. Characteristics and Performance of Transmission Lines 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Short Transmission line 6.3 Voltage Regulation 6.4 Medium Transmission Line 6.5 Long Transmission Line 6.6 Voltage Waves 6.7 Surge Impedance 6.8 Power Flow Through Transmission Line 6.9 Ferranti Effect Chapter 7. Load Flow Analysis 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Bus Classification 7.3 Bus Admittance Matrix 7.4 Bus Loading Equations 7.5 Gaus-Seidel Iterative Method 7.6 Calculation of Net Injected Power 7.7 Consideration of P-|V| Buses 7.8 Convergence Procedure 7.9 Computation of Line Flows and Line Losses 7.10 Algorithm for Gauss-Seidel Method 7.11 Newton-Rephson Method 7.12 Load Flow Using Newton-Raphson Method 7.13 Decoupled Load Flow Solution 7.14 Decoupled Load Flow Algorithm 7.15 Fast Decoupled Load Flow 7.16 Tap Changing Transformers Chapter 8. Symmetrical Fault 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Rated MVA Interrupting Capacity of a Circuit Breaker 8.3 Current Limiting Reactors 8.4 Short Circuit Analysis for Large Systems 8.5 Formulation of ZBUS Matrix 8.6 Algorithm for Building ZBUS Matrix Chapter 9. Symmetrical Components 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Symmetrical Components of an Unbalanced Three Phase System 9.3 Power Invariance 9.4 Sequence Impedances of Transmission Lines 9.5 Sequence Impedances of Synchronous Machine 9.6 Sequence Networks of a Loaded Synchronous Machine 9.7 Sequence Impedances of Transformers. Chapter 10. Unbalanced Fault Analysis 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Single Line to Ground Fault 10.3 Line-to-Line Fault 10.4 Double-Line-to-Ground (L-L-G) Fault 10.5 Open Conductor Faults Chapter 11. Power System Stability 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Inertia Constant and The Swing Equation 11.3 Multi-Machine System 11.4 Machines Swinging in Unison (Coherently) 11.5 Power Flow Under Steady-State 11.6 Equal-Area Criterion 11.7 Critical Clearing Angle and Critical Clearing Time 11.8 Step-by-Step Solution 11.9 Evaluation of Pa and Wr(AVG) 11.10 Algorithm for the Iterations Chapter 12. Automatic Generation Control: Conventional Scenario 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Basic Generator Control Loops 12.3 Fundamentals of Speed Governing System 12.4 Isochronous Governor 12.5 Governors with Speed-Droop Characteristics 12.6 Speed Regulation (Droop) 12.7 Load Sharing by Parallel Generating Units 12.8 Control of Power Output of Generating Units 12.9 Turbine Model 12.10 Generator-Load Model 12.11 Block Diagram Representation of an Isolated Power System 12.12 State-Space Representation 12.13 Fundamentals of Automatic Generation Control 12.14 Steady State Analysis 12.15 Concept of Control Area 12.16 AGC of Two Area Interconnected Power System 12.17 Tie-Line Frequency Bias Control 12.18 Basis for Selection of Bias Factor 12.19 Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) 12.20 Discrete Integral Controller for AGC Chapter 13. Automatic Generation Control in a Restructured Power System 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Traditional Vs Restructured Scenario 13.3 DISCO Participation Matrix (DPM) 13.4 Block Diagram Representation 13.5 State Space Representation of the Two-Area System in Deregulated Environment Chapter 14. Corona 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The Phenomenon of Corona. 14.3 Potential Gradient for Single-Phase Line 14.4 Potential Gradient for Three-Phase Line 14.5 Disruptive Critical Coltage for a Single Phase Transmission Line 14.6 Disruptive Critical Voltage for a Three Phase Transmission Line 14.7 Formula for Disruptive Critical Voltage Suggested by F.W. Peek 14.8 Visual Critical Voltage 14.9 Corona Power Loss 14.10 Factors Affecting Corona Loss 14.11 Effect of Corona on Line Design Chapter 15. Analysis of Sag of Tension 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Effect of Temperature Change 15.3 Calculations of Line Sag and Tension 15.4 Unsymmetrical Spans (Supports at Different Levels) 15.5 Ruling Span or Equivalent Span (Spans of Unequal Length) 15.6 Effect of Ice 15.7 Effect of Wind 15.8 Location of Line 15.9 Sag Template 15.10 Aeolian Vibration (Resonant Vibration) 15.11 Galloping or Dancing of Conductors Chapter 16. Optimal System Operation 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Formulation of the Economic Dispatch Problem 16.3 General Problem Formulation 16.4 Classical Economic Dispatch Neglecting Losses 16.5 Generator Power Limits 16.6 Economic Dispatch Considering Line Losses 16.7 Physical Significance of λ Considering Losses 16.8 Determination of λ Using Gradient Method 16.9 General Method for Finding Penalty Factors 16.10 Transmission Loss Formula Objective Questions Answers Bibliography Index.
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