Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia, Second Edition is a fully updated and revised version of the first comprehensive reference on anesthetic techniques in captive and free-ranging wildlife. Now including expanded coverage of avian and aquatic species, this exhaustive resource presents information on the full range of zoo and wildlife species. Covering topics ranging from monitoring and field anesthesia to CPR and euthanasia, the heart of the book is devoted to 53 species-specific chapters providing a wealth of information on little-known and common zoo and wildlife animals alike. In addition to new species chapters, the new edition brings a new focus on pain management, including chronic pain, and more information on species-specific physiology. Chapters on airway management, monitoring, emergency therapeutics, and field procedures are all significantly expanded as well. This update to Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia is an invaluable addition to the library of all zoo and wildlife veterinarians.
Cover Title page Copyright page Dedication Contents Contributors Preface Section I: General 1: Clinical Pharmacology Introduction Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Inhalant Anesthetics Physics of Gases and Vapors Control of the Partial Pressure of Delivered Anesthetic Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) General Pharmacological Actions of Inhalant Anesthetics Clinically Useful Inhalant Anesthetics Injectable Anesthetics Barbiturates Propofol Dissociative Anesthetics Miscellaneous Anesthetics Opioids Opioid Receptors Endogenous Opioid Receptor Ligands Opioid Receptor Signaling and Mechanisms of Analgesia Opioid Receptor Distribution and Therapeutic Implications Adverse Effects of Clinically Used Opioids Opioid Agonists Opioid Agonist-Antagonists and Partial Agonists Opioid Antagonists Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatories The Cyclooxygenases and Prostaglandin Synthesis The NSAIDs and Mechanisms of Analgesia The NSAIDs and Fever The NSAIDs and Endogenous Antiinflammatory Mechanisms Other Pharmacologic Considerations for NSAID Use Contraindications for NSAIDs NSAIDs used in Veterinary Medicine NSAIDs Not Approved for Use in Veterinary Medicine (Off-Label Use) Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists Introduction Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonist Effects Specific Drugs Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists Phenothiazines and Butyrophenones Introduction References 2: Monitoring Introduction Monitoring Basics Why Is Monitoring Important? What Should be Monitored? Monitoring the Respiratory System Pulse Oximetery Capnography Monitoring the Cardiovascular System Blood Pressure References 3: Airway Management Introduction General Principles of Airway Management. Signs of Airway Obstruction Approaches to Airway Management Unsupported Airway Awake Intubation Intubation Following Induction Planning Airway Management Maintenance of the Airway during Anesthesia Patient Positioning Supraglottic Airway Devices Infraglottic Devices Subglottic Devices Aids to Tracheal Intubation Laryngoscope Optical Stylets Flexible Endoscopes Bougies and Stylets Gags and Ropes Methods of Tracheal Intubation Direct Visualization Blind Intubation Palpation Intubation Retrograde Intubation Confirmation of Tracheal Intubation Extubation Airway Idiopathic Trauma Cleaning and Disinfection References 4: Thermoregulation Monitoring Body Temperature Hypothermia Perioperative Heat Loss Consequences of Hypothermia Perioperative Hypothermia: Prevention and Treatment Hyperthermia References 5: Oxygen Therapy Why O2? Hypoxemia and Hypoxia What Causes Hypoxemia? What Causes Hypoxia? Oxygen Sources High Pressure Oxygen Cylinders Portable Oxygen Concentrators Liquid Oxygen Containers Methods of Administering Oxygen Intranasal Oxygen Flow-by Oxygen Intra/Transtracheal Oxygen Humidification or Not? Detection of Hypoxemia and Monitoring the Effects of Oxygen Therapy Clinical Signs of Hypoxemia and Efficacy of Oxygen Therapy Pulse Oximetry Arterial Blood Gas Analysis What Do Arterial Blood Gases Tell You? Blood Gas Reference Values Target PaO2 Discontinuing Oxygen Therapy What If Oxygen Therapy Fails? Common Misconceptions Oxygen Cylinder Use in Wildlife Ungulates Carnivores Portable Oxygen Concentrator Use in Wildlife Postanesthetic Effects of Hypoxemia Immobilization-Induced Hypoxemia and Recovery Oxygen Therapy during Recovery Oxygen Toxicity References. 6: Analgesia Introduction Physiology of Pain Ascending Nociceptive Pathways Antinociceptive Descending Pathways Principles of Pain Management Pain and Its Management in Vertebrate Species Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Pain in Invertebrates References 7: Physical Capture and Restraint Introduction Mammals Cervidae, Bovidae, and Antilocapridae (Artiodactylids) Canidae/Felidae Ursidae Mustelidae/Procyonidae/Viverridae Rodents and Lagomorphs Monotremes/Marsupials Primates Bats Suidae/Tapiridae/Tayassuidae Camelidae/Giraffidae Elephants Birds Ratites Waterfowl (Anatidae) and Wading Birds (Herons, Cranes, and Storks) Galliforms (Pheasant, Grouse, and Partridge) Hawks, Owls, and Falcons Passerines Psittacines Reptiles Lizards, Skinks, and Geckos Reptiles Turtles/Tortoises Amphibians References Webliography 8: Zoo and Wildlife CPR Introduction Objectives of CPCR Defining Basic and Advanced Life Support Cardiopulmonary Arrest (CPA) and CPCR: Strategy Confirm the Presence of an Arrest Pulmonary Arrest without Cardiac Arrest The Alphabet of an Arrest: A, B, C Arrests during Anesthesia Open-Chest or Internal Cardiac Massage Indications for Open-Chest CPCR Technique for Internal Cardiac Massage The Alphabet of an Arrest: D, E, F Drugs Routes of CPCR Drug Administration Electrocardiogram Fluids Monitoring Efficacy of CPCR Discontinuing CPCR Prognosis and Return of Spontaneous Circulation? References 9: Field Emergencies and Complications Introduction Precapture Considerations Planning Situation Terrain Weather Target Species Emergency Equipment Immobilizing Drugs Capture Techniques Helicopter Safety. Animal Safety Considerations for Remote Drug Delivery Equipment Complications Stress Induction Initial Assessment Anesthetic Depth and Arousal Respiratory Depression and Hypoxemia Hyperthermia Hypothermia Vomiting and Regurgitation Bloat Trauma Pneumothorax Myopathy Recovery Mortalities Euthanasia Conclusion References 10: Euthanasia Introduction Considerations for Wildlife and Zoo Species Methods Assessing Death Specific Recommendations Summary References 11: Remote Drug Delivery Introduction Direct Delivery for Cooperative Animals Training for Direct Drug Administration Manual Drug Delivery Routes for Cooperative Animals Remote Delivery Systems for Uncooperative Animals Historical Development of Remote Delivery Systems Dart Types Remote Delivery Projectors Darting Accessories Cleaning and Reusing Darts Drug delivery Problems Human Safety Concerns during Darting Procedures Conclusions References 12: Capture Myopathy Introduction History The Human Comparative Etiology Predisposing Factors Species Environment Capture Related Other Diseases Nutrition Drugs Signalment Pathophysiology Clinical and Pathological Syndromes Capture Shock Syndrome Ataxic Myoglobinuric Syndrome Ruptured Muscle Syndrome Delayed Peracute Syndrome Differential Diagnoses Treatment Analgesia Dantrolene Muscle Relaxants Dietary Supplements Hyperbaric Oxygen Sodium Bicarbonate Fluid Therapy Nutritional Support Physical Therapy Prevention Conclusions References 13: Human Safety during Wildlife Capture Introduction Risks to Human Safety during Wildlife Capture and Handling Hazard Assessment Environmental Risks Equipment Related Risks. Animal-Related Risks Drug-Related Risks Emergency Preparedness Preimmobilization Plan Emergency Response Protocol Consultation with Medical Professionals References Section II: Invertebrates, Fish, Reptiles, and Amphibians 14: Invertebrates Introduction Taxonomic Groups Mollusks Arachnida Crustaceans Insects Echinoderms Pain Management Euthanasia References 15: Bony Fish (Lungfish, Sturgeon, and Teleosts) Introduction Stress and Anesthesia Taxonomy, Anatomy, Physiology, and Behavior Respiration Metabolism Integument Size Environmental and Other Factors Temperature pH Nitrogenous Compounds Drug Concentration or Dosage Drug Exposure Time Vascular Access Immobilization Methods and Techniques Manual Restraint Operant Conditioning General Suggestions for Anesthesia Preanesthetic Preparations Immersion (Inhalant) Anesthesia Parenteral Anesthesia Monitoring Anesthetic Depth Cardiopulmonary Water Quality Recovery Resuscitation Anesthetic Drugs General Comments Inhalant (Waterborne or Immersion) Drugs Oral Anesthetics Injectable Anesthetics Nonchemical Anesthesia Analgesia Euthanasia Field Immobilization Postanesthetic Challenges Acknowledgments References 16: Elasmobranchs and Holocephalans Introduction Anatomy and Physiology Capture Physical Restraint Vascular Access Preanesthetic Considerations Chemical Immobilization Immersion (Inhalation) Anesthesia 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE) Injectable Anesthesia Injectable Anesthetics Injectable Anesthetic Combinations Oral (PO) Nonspecific "Reversal" Drugs Monitoring Recovery Considerations and Postanesthetic Challenges Field Immobilization Euthanasia Acknowledgments References. 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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.