With the end of civil war in 1991, Ethiopias government launched a New Education and Training Policy in 1994 which, by the early 2000s, had already produced remarkable results. The gross enrollment ratio rose from 20 to 62 percent in primary education between 1993-94 and 2001-02; and in secondary and higher education it climbed, respectively, from 8 to 12 percent and from 0.5 to 1.7 percent. Yet the government can hardly afford to rest on its laurels. Primary education is still not universal, and already there are concerns about plummeting educational quality and the growing pressures to expand post-primary education. Addressing these challenges will require more resources, both public and private. Yet money alone is insufficient. Focusing on primary and secondary education, Education in Ethiopia argues for wise tradeoffs in the use of resourcesa result that will often require reforming the arrangements for service delivery. These changes, in turn, need to be fostered by giving lower levels of government more leeway to adapt central standardssuch as those for teacher recruitment and school constructionto local conditions, including local resource constraints; and by strengthening accountability for results at all levels of administration in the education system.
Intro Contents Foreword Acknowledgments Abbreviations and Acronyms Executive Summary Designing the Overall Policy Framework Getting Resources to Schools, Communities, and Households Taking Advantage of Decentralization to Get Results Conclusion 1. Demography, Economy, and Government Finance Demographic and Social Conditions Economic Conditions Pattern of Government Finance Conclusion 2. Enrollments and Patterns of Student Flow Structure of the Education System Overview of Enrollment Trends Enrollments in Government and Nongovernment Establishments Evening Classes, Distance Education, and Nonformal Basic Education Trends and Levels in the Gross Enrollment Ratio Student Flow in Primary and Secondary Education Issues for Policy Development Conclusion 3. Education Expenditures Overall Pattern of Recurrent Public Spending on Education A Closer Look at Recurrent Public Spending on Education in 2001-02 Public Spending Per Student by Level and Type of Education Household Spending on Education Issues for Policy Development Conclusion 4. Disparities in Enrollments, Student Flow, and Benefit Incidence Overview of Participation Rates Disparities in Student Flow Patterns in Primary Education Distribution of Public Spending on Education Issues for Policy Development Conclusion 5. Service Delivery in Primary and Secondary Education Overview of the Network of Schools Selected Characteristics of Schools Staffing Patterns Teacher Allocation across Government Schools Economies of Scale in Service Delivery Student Achievement Issues for Policy Development Conclusion 6. Aspects of the Market and Nonmarket Benefits of Schooling Employment Patterns and Workers' Educational Attainment The Market Returns to Education. The Impact of Education on Poverty and Nonmarket Outcomes Issues for Policy Development Conclusion APPENDIXES Technical Note 1: Preparation of the Data on Current Public Expenditure on Education in Ethiopia Technical Note 2: Estimating Student Flow Profiles Technical Note 3: Selected Studies on Rates of Return to Education in Ethiopia Appendix Tables References LIST OF TABLES 1 Low Rates of Entry to Grade 1 and Survival to Grade 4, Especially in Rural Areas, despite Unambiguous Overall Improvement since 1993-94 2 High Teacher Cost Leads to Adverse Tradeoff against Other School Inputs in Ethiopia 3 Scope Exists for Increasing the Efficiency of Time Use by Teachers beyond Grade 4 4 Possible Indicators for Monitoring Progress in Primary Education in Ethiopia 5 Urban-Rural Disparities in Primary School Participation are Especially Wide in Ethiopia 6 Primary Schools are Still Too Inaccessible for Many Children in Rural Ethiopia 7 Incompleteness of Instructional Program Characterizes Many Rural Primary Schools 8 The Direct Cost of Primary Schooling Can Be Significant for the Poorest Families 1.1 Selected Population Characteristics, Ethiopia, 1984 to 1999-2000 1.2 Selected Health Indicators, Ethiopia, 1984 to 1999-2000 1.3 Percentage of Children below 15 Years of Age Who Have Lost One or Both Parents, Ethiopia and Other African Countries, circa 1999 1.4 Sources of Recent Economic Growth, Ethiopia, 1992-93 to 1999-2000 1.5 Trends in Overall Government Revenues, Ethiopia, 1980-81 to 2001-02 1.6 Trends in Total Government Expenditure, Ethiopia, 1980-81 to 2001-02 1.7 Trends in Public Spending on Education, Ethiopia, 1980-81 to 2001-02 2.1 Enrollments by Level in Government and Nongovernment Institutions, Ethiopia, 1967-68 to 2001-02. 2.2 Number of Students by Type and Level of Education, Ethiopia, 2001-02 2.3 Primary Gross Enrollment Ratios (GER), Ethiopia, 1993-94 to 2001-02 2.4 Three Indicators of Entry to Grade 1, Ethiopia, 1993-94 to 2000-01 2.5 Cohort Survival Rates Using Different Estimation Methods, Ethiopia, 2000-01 2.6 Composite Cohort Survival Rates and Intercycle Transition Rates, Ethiopia, 1993-94 and circa 2000-01 2.7 Repetition Rates and Share of Readmitted Students among Repeaters, Ethiopia, 1993-93 and 2002-03 2.8 Efficiency of Student Flow in Primary Education, Ethiopia, 1993-94 and 2001-02 2.9 Enrollments in Grades 8-12 in Government and Nongovernment Schools, Ethiopia, 1999-2000 to 2002-03 2.10 Possible Indicators for Monitoring Progress in Primary Education in Ethiopia 3.1 Regional Distribution of School-Age Population and Recurrent Public Spending on Education, Ethiopia, 1993-94 to 2001-02 3.2 Recurrent Public Education Spending Trends and Composition by Subsector, Ethiopia, 1993-94 to 2001-02 3.3 Regional Recurrent Spending on Education, and Amount and Share of Spending on Administration, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.4 Regional Recurrent Spending on Primary, Secondary, and Technical 3.5 Distribution of Teachers in Government Schools by Level of Teaching Assigned, Certification, and Average Age, Ethiopia, circa 2002 3.6 Average Annual Teacher Remuneration and Aggregate Spending on Teachers and Administrative Staff in Government Schools, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.7 Number of Academic and Administrative Staff, Their Average Remuneration and Aggregate Wage Bill in Teacher Training and Higher Education, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.8 Recurrent Public Spending on Education by Function and Level, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.9 Recurrent Spending on Primary and Secondary Education across Regions, Ethiopia, 2001-02. 3.10 Teacher Wages and Educational Supplies as a Percentage of Recurrent Spending in Primary and Secondary Education across Regions. Ethiopia. 2001-02 3.11 Public Recurrent Spending Per Student by Level and Type of Education 3.12 Public Spending Per Student in Government Primary and Secondary Schools across Regions, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.13 Estimates of Teaching Loads by Level of Education, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.14 Sources of Differences in Spending Per Student in Government Primary and Secondary Education, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.15 Sources of Regional Differences in Spending Per Student in Grades 1-4 and Grades 5-8 Across Regions, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.16 Sources of Differences in Government Spending Per Student across Cycles in Primary Education in Each Region, Ethiopia, 2001-02 3.17 Household Spending on Education by Level, Ethiopia, circa 2000 3.18 Aggregate Household Spending on Education, Ethiopia, 1999-00 3.19 National Spending on Education, Ethiopia, 1999-2000 3.20 Household Spending Per Child in Primary School by Household Consumption 3.21 Public Recurrent Spending Per Primary Pupil, Teacher Wages, Pupil-Teacher Ratios, and Spending on Inputs Other Than Teachers, Ethiopia and Selected World Regions, circa 2000 3.22 Teacher's Weekly Teaching Hours by Level of Education, Ethiopia (2001-02) and Other Countries (1999) 3.23 Teacher's Weekly Teaching Hours by Level of Education, Ethiopia (2001-2) and Other Countries (1999) 4.1 Gross Enrollment Ratios by Region, Ethiopia, 1993-94 and 2001-02 4.2 Gross Enrollment Ratios by Locality, Gender, and Wealth, Ethiopia, 1999-2000 4.3 Female Share of Primary and Secondary Enrollments across Regions 4.4 Percentage of Children Ages 7-14 Currently Enrolled in Primary School by Orphanhood Status, Ethiopia, 1999-2000. 4.5 Student Flow Indicators in Primary Education by Gender 4.6 Social Selectivity in Primary Education according to Three Cross-Sectional Indicators of Access, Ethiopia and Sub-Saharan African Countries, circa 2000 4.7 Benefit Incidence of Public Spending on Education, Ethiopia, circa 2000 4.8 Share of Public Spending on Education Benefiting the Poorest and Richest Population Quintiles, Ethiopia (1999-2000) and Other Countries (1990s) 4.9 Distribution of Children Ages 7-14 and Their School Participation Rates by Distance to Nearest Primary School, Ethiopia, 2000 4.10 Percentage of Children Ages 7 to 14 Years Currently Registered for School, by Mother's Native Language, Ethiopia, 2000 5.1 Distribution of Primary and Secondary Students and Schools 5.2 Distribution of Government and Nongovernment Schools 5.3 Percentage Distribution of Government and Nongovernment Primary Schools by Date of Establishment, Ethiopia, 2001-02 5.4 Distribution of Government Primary Schools by Highest Grade 5.5 Prevalence of Double Shifting and Section and School Sizes of Government 5.6 Selected Indicators of Conditions in Government and Nongovernment 5.7 Administrative Staff Allocation and Staffing Ratios across Primary 5.8 Distribution of Teachers by Gender and Qualification in Government and Nongovernment Primary and Secondary Schools, Ethiopia, 2001-02 5.9 Pupil-Teacher Ratios by Level of Instruction in Government and Nongovernment Schools across Regions, Ethiopia, 2001-02 5.10 Percentage Distribution of Government and Nongovernment Schools by Range of Pupil-Teacher ratios, Ethiopia, 2001-02 5.11 Regression Estimates of the Relation between Numbers of Teachers and Students across Government Schools by Level of Instruction, Ethiopia, 2001-02. 5.12 Regression Estimates of the Relation between Total Costs and Enrollments across Government Schools, Ethiopia, 2001-02.
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