Bioprocess Sciences and Technology.

Other records:
Liong, Min-Tze.
Hauppauge : Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated, 2011.
Biochemistry Research Trends
Biochemistry Research Trends
1 online resource (528 pages)
Agricultural biotechnology.
Electronic books.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Part 1: Bacteria as a Source of Raw Material
Bacillus Thuringiensis Biopesticides: Key Strains and Toxins, Mass Culture, Formulation Strategies and Improvements
1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences,
Rajarata University, Sri Lanka
2Microbiology Lab, Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
3Rubber Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
4 Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka
1. Introduction
2. Diversity of Bacillus Thuringiensis
3. Toxins of Bt
3.1. α Exotoxin
3.2. β Exotoxins
3.3. Vips and Vip Related Proteins
3.4. Phospholipase C (Lesithinase)
3.5. Parasporins
3.6. Hemolysins
3.7. Diarrheal Type Enterotoxins
3.8. δ Endotoxin
3.8.1. Mode of Action of the Bt δ Endotoxin
3.8.2. The Tertiary Structure of Cry Proteins
3.8.3. Classification of Cry Toxins
4. Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxins
4.1. Production of Bacillus Thuringiensis Based Biopesticides
4.1.1. Culture Media
4.1.2. Fermentation Types
4.1.3. Type of Bioreactors
4.1.4. Factors Affecting the Production Efficiency
Nitrogen Source
5. Drawbacks of Bacillus Thuringiensis as a Biopesticide
5.1. Specificity and Resistance Build up
5.2. Survival of Bt in the Environment
5.3. Toxicity to Non-Target Animals
5.4. Shelf-life of Bt Pesticides
6. Formulation Strategies
6.1. Challenges for Formulations and Additives as Solutions
6.2. Bt Formulation Types
6.2.1. Dry Formulations
6.2.2. Liquid Formulations
6.2.3. Wettable Powders and Water Dispersible Granules
7. Genetic Engineering of Bacillus Thuringiensis
7.1. Improving the Host Range.
7.2. Producing Strains Carrying Several Cry Toxins with Different Species Specificities
7.2.1. Hybrid Toxins
7.2.2. Introduction of B. Sphaericus Toxins to Bacillus Thuringiensis
7.3. Increasing the Yield of Cry Toxins
7.4. Preventing Build up of Resistance
7.5. Improving Persistence and Breaking the Niche Barriers
8. Protein Engineering
9. Future Aspects
Butanol a Total Substitute for Gasoline from Agricultural Residue
Department of Agriculture Biology,
University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
1. Introduction
2. Butanol
3. Fermentation Strains
a. Rational (Direct)
b. Random (Combinational)
4. Feedstock for Butanol Production
5. Limitations and Challenges in Industrial Processing
6. Biological Pathways and Determinants
of Butanol Production
7. Butanol Toxicity
Prospect and Sustainable Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate from Palm Oil
1. Introduction
2. Discovery of PHA and Development of Research Interest
2.1. Discovery of P(3HB) and other Hydroxyalkanoate (HA) Constituents in the Natural Environmental
2.2. Biosynthesis of Various PHA under Controlled Laboratory Conditions
2.3. Biodegradability of PHA
3. Types of PHA
3.1. Short-chain-length PHA (SCL-PHA)
3.1.1. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB]
3.1.2. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV]
3.2. Medium-chain-length PHA (MCL-PHA)
3.3. Short-chain-length-medium-chain-length PHA (SCL-MCL PHA)
4. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Various Types of PHA from Palm Oil Products
4.1. P(3HB)
4.2. P(3HB-co-3HV)
4.3. P(3HB-co-3HHx)
4.4. P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx)
4.5. MCL-PHA
5. Conclusion and Future Outlook
Part 2. Algae as a Source of Raw Material.
Microalgae as a Feedstock for the Production of Biofuels: Microalgal Biochemistry, Analytical Tools, and Targeted Bioprospecting
1Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines,
1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
2Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines,
1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
3National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd,
Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
1. Introduction
2. Microalgal Carbohydrates and Hydrocarbons
2.1. Starch Synthesis
2.2. Starch Degradation
2.3. Terpenes and Terpenoids
2.4. Alcohols
2.5. Botryococcus Hydrocarbons
3. Microalgal Hydrogen Production
4. Oleaginous Microalgae
4.1. Consideration of Carbon Source in Microalgal Lipid Accumulation
4.2. Algal Lipid Biochemistry
4.2.1. Fatty Acids
4.2.2. Biosynthesis
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACCase)
Malonyl-CoA/ACP Transacylase (MAT)
ß-ketoacyl-ACP Synthase (KAS)
4.2.3. Plastidial Modification
4.2.4. TAG Synthesis
4.2.5. Fatty Acid Oxidation
4.2.7. Localization
4.2.8. β-Oxidation
4.2.9. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation
4.2.10. Odd-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation
4.3. Algal Lipid Classification
4.4. Lipid Chemistry Affects Fuel Properties
4.5. Qualitative Lipid Analysis of Microalgae
4.6. Semi-Quantitative Lipid Analysis of Microalgae and FACS
4.7. Fully Quantitative Lipid Analysis of Microalgae
5. Molecular Tools for Algal Feedstock Engineering
5.1. Methods for Transformation and Expression
5.2. Microalgal Genomes
6. Bioenergy-Focused Bioprospecting for Microalgal Diversity
6.1. DOE's Former Aquatic Species Program: Establishment of a Microalgal Culture Collection for Biofuels Applications
6.2. Establishment of a Bioenergy-Focused Microalgal Strain Collection with FACS.
7. Conclusion
Algae for the Production of Pharmaceuticals
1Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, str. Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
2Ilya State University, av. Chavchavadze, 32, Tbilisi 0179, Georgia
3Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, str. Tamarashvili, 6, Tbilisi 0177, Georgia
1. Introduction
2. Marine Algae for Pharmaceutical
3. Microalgae
4. Properties of Some Microalgae Used in Pharmaceuticals
4.1. Chlorella
4.2. Spirulina
4.3. Dunaliella
4.4. Haematococcus
5. Substantiation of the Method for Making Substances for Pharmaceuticals on the Basis of the Spirulina Platensis Biomass
5.1. Formulation of the Problem
5.2. Materials and Methods
5.3. Results and Discussion
6. Conclusion
Algae: Processes and Applications
Institute of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Parameters of Algal Productivity
2.1. Light
2.2. Temperature
2.3. Stirring
2.4. CO2-Supply
2.5. The Algal Suspension
2.5.1. Nutrition Medium
2.5.2. Nitrogen Starvation
2.5.3. Concentration of NaCl
2.5.4. Extracellular Substances
2.5.5. Bacterial Contamination
Separation of Biomass
G = a.g-1 = v2.g-1.r-1, v = 2π.n.r,
Use of Algae and Algal Products
4.1. Algae as Foods, Forage and Pharmaceuticals
4.2. Algae as Source of Fuel
4.2.1. Hydrocarbons
4.2.2. Biogas
4.2.3. Bio-hydrogen
4.2.4. Biodiesel
Algae for the Production of SCP
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,.
P.O. Box 71345-1583, Shiraz, Iran
1. Introduction
2. History
3. Classification of the Algae
3.1. Cyanobacteria
3.2. Green Algae
3.2.1. Chlorella
3.2.2. Dunaliella
3.2.3. Scenedesmus
4. Source of Single-Cell Proteins
5. Production of SCP
6. Microalgae as Human Food or Animal Feed
7. Chemical Composition of Microalgal SCP
7.1. Protein/Amino Acids Content of Microalgae
7.2. Fat, Oil and Hydrocarbon Content of Microalgae
7.3. Carbohydrate Content of Microalgae
7.4. Vitamin Content of Microalgae
8. Analytical Methods
8.1. Solution Used for Protein Determination in the Kochert Method
9. SCP Safety
10. Limitations for Use of SCP
11. Conclusion
Part 3. Yeast as a Source of Raw Material
Fermenting Microorganisms for 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production
1. Introduction
2. Second Generation Bioethanol
2.1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Processes
2.1.1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2.1.2. Zymomonas Mobilis
2.1.3. Thermotolerant Yeasts Kluyveromyces Marxianus
2.2. Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-fermentation Processes
2.2.1. Natural Xylose Fermenting Microorganisms
2.2.2. Engineered Xylose Fermenting Microorganisms Engineered Yeasts Engineered Bacteria
2.3. Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP)
3. Concluding Remarks
Single Cell Protein from Yeast
School of Engineering and Information Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu
1. Introduction
2. Fundamental of Yeast
3. Yeast as SCP
4. Resources for Production of Yeast-based SCP
5. Toxicity and Safety
6. Technologies in Production of Yeast-based SCP
6.1. Production of SCP
6.2. Optimal Parameters for SCP Production
6.3. Growth Kinetics.
6.4. Process Design and Control.
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Print version: Liong, Min-Tze Bioprocess Sciences and Technology
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