Dr Fidel Toldrá, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Valencia, Spain Dr Y. H. Hui, Science Technology System, West Sacramento, California, USA Dr Iciar Astiasarán, Department of Food Science, Technology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Dr Joseph G. Sebranek, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA Dr Regine Talon, SRV-UR Microbiologie, INRA, Saint Genès Champanelle, France.
Cover Title Page Copyright Contents List of Contributors Preface Part I Meat Fermentation Worldwide: Overview, Production, and Principles Chapter 1 Dry-Fermented Sausages and Ripened Meats: An Overview 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fermented sausages and ripened meats around the world 1.3 The importance of fermented sausages Acknowledgement References Chapter 2 Production and Consumption of Fermented Meat Products 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Current products 2.3 The Future References Chapter 3 Principles of Meat Fermentation 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Fermentation 3.3 Factors influencing fermentation 3.4 Proteolysis 3.5 Lipolysis 3.6 Antagonistic effects References Chapter 4 Principles of Curing 4.1 Definition of curing 4.2 History of curing 4.3 Legislation 4.4 Chemistry of nitrite and nitrate 4.5 Nitrite and nitrate in meat products 4.6 Nitrosomyoglobin (NOMb) 4.7 N-nitrosamine formation 4.8 Conclusion References Chapter 5 Principles of Drying 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Basic principles of drying 5.3 Hurdle technology applied to dried meat and poultry products 5.4 Fundamentals of the drying of meat and poultry products 5.5 Drying kinetics modeling 5.6 Air conditioning and circulation in meat drying References Chapter 6 Principles of Smoking 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Wood-smoke composition 6.3 The preserving effect 6.4 The flavoring effect 6.5 Benefits and risks 6.6 Food engineering approach 6.7 Smoking procedures References Part II Raw Materials Chapter 7 The Biochemistry of Meat and Fat 7.1 Introduction: muscle structure 7.2 Meat composition 7.3 Muscle proteases and lipases 7.4 Adipose tissue lipases 7.5 Post mortem muscle metabolism and quality References Chapter 8 Ingredients 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Lean 8.3 Fat 8.4 Factors affecting the suitability of lean and fat for processing 8.5 Other ingredients References Chapter 9 Additives 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Acids and related additives 9.3 Antioxidants 9.4 Colorants 9.5 Emulsifiers 9.6 Flavor enhancers 9.7 Flavoring agents 9.8 Preservatives 9.9 Multipurpose additives: phosphates References Chapter 10 Spices and Seasonings 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Ethnic preferences 10.3 Commonly used spices in processed meats 10.4 Botanical properties 10.5 Product forms and appearances 10.6 Chemical properties 10.7 Quality standards 10.8 Sensory properties 10.9 Applications in fermented meat processing 10.10 Conclusion References Chapter 11 Casings 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Natural casings 11.3 Artificial casings 11.4 Regulatory compliance 11.5 Handling casings 11.6 Quality determination 11.7 Conclusion References Part III Microbiology and Starter Cultures Chapter 12 Microorganisms in Traditional Fermented Meats 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Traditional sausage manufacture 12.3 Description of ecosystems 12.4 Identification of technological microbiota 12.5 Conclusion References Chapter 13 The Microbiology of Fermentation and Ripening 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The manufacture of fermented sausages 13.3 Technological microflora 13.4 Spoilage microflora 13.5 Foodborne pathogens 13.6 Starter cultures References Chapter 14 Bacteria 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Bacterial starter cultures used for fermented meats 14.3 Starter cultures: technological advantage in the meat environment 14.4 Safety of selected meat starter-culture bacteria 14.5 Conclusion References Chapter 15 Bioprotective Cultures 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Starter cultures for meat fermentation. 15.3 Competitiveness of starter cultures 15.4 Bioprotective cultures for fermented meat products 15.5 Conclusion References Chapter 16 Yeasts 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Presence of yeasts on meat sausages 16.3 Role of yeasts in meat products 16.4 Yeast starter cultures References Chapter 17 Molds 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Fungal contamination in ripening environments 17.3 Fungal starter cultures 17.4 Lipolytic and proteolytic activity of starter cultures 17.5 Growth and competitiveness of starter cultures 17.6 Conclusion References Chapter 18 Probiotics 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Probiotics and probiotic foods 18.3 Probiotics and meat products 18.4 Prebiotics and synbiotics 18.5 Conclusion References Chapter 19 The Genetics of Microbial Starters 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Chromosome elements 19.3 Plasmids 19.4 DNA transfer and genetic tools 19.5 Post-genomics studies References Chapter 20 The Influence of Processing Parameters on Starter Culture Performance 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Influence of raw materials 20.3 Influence of temperature 20.4 Influence of added fermentable carbohydrates 20.5 Influence of salting and drying 20.6 Influence of curing agents 20.7 Influence of spices 20.8 Influence of sausage caliber 20.9 Influence of maturation and molding 20.10 Conclusion Acknowledgments References Chapter 21 Methodologies for the Study of Microbial Ecology in Fermented Sausages 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Molecular approaches to the study of microbial ecology in fermented sausages 21.3 Culture-independent methods 21.4 Definition of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages by culture-independent methods 21.5 Culture-dependent methods. 21.6 Definition of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages by culture-dependent methods 21.7 Conclusion References Part IV Sensory Attributes Chapter 22 Sensory Analyses-General Considerations 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Sensory methods 22.3 Sensory analysis of fermented meat products References Chapter 23 Color 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Color-forming compounds 23.3 Chemistry of meat color 23.4 Influence of fermentation parameters on color 23.5 Bacterial role in meat color 23.6 Natural and organic cured meat 23.7 Color stability of cured meat products 23.8 Conclusion Acknowledgment References Chapter 24 Texture 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Texture of commercial products 24.3 Texture development during fermentation 24.4 Texture development during ripening 24.5 Texture development during cooking (nondried/semidried) 24.6 Effects of processing parameters 24.7 Effects of product modification with non-meat ingredients 24.8 Conclusion References Chapter 25 Flavor 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Precursor generation reactions of fermented meat flavor 25.3 Volatile compound generation reactions 25.4 Extraction and identification of volatile compounds 25.5 Elucidation of aroma active compounds 25.6 Relevance of volatile compounds in fermented meats References Part V Product Categories: General Considerations Chapter 26 Composition and Nutrition 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Nutrient supply from meat and meat products 26.3 Meat and meat products in healthy nutrition 26.4 Recommended meat intakes 26.5 Effects of fermentation on the nutritional and health properties of meat References Chapter 27 Functional Dry-Fermented Sausages 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Modification of the mineral content in dry-fermented sausages. 27.3 Fat modifications in dry-fermented sausages 27.4 Incorporation of fiber into dry-fermented sausages 27.5 Use of dry-fermented sausages as probiotics 27.6 Incorporation of vitamins 27.7 Conclusion References Chapter 28 Low-Sodium Products 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Relevance of salt in fermented meats 28.3 Strategies for sodium reduction 28.4 Effects of sodium reduction on quality and safety References Chapter 29 International Standards: United States 29.1 Introduction 29.2 US regulatory process 29.3 Regulatory definitions and specifications 29.4 HACCP options 29.5 Validation References Chapter 30 International Standards: Europe 30.1 Introduction 30.2 Quality 30.3 Microbiological safeguarding in food chains 30.4 Generating microbiological data in practice 30.5 Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs in Reg. (EC) 2073/2005 References Chapter 31 Packaging and Storage 31.1 Introduction 31.2 Functions of food packaging 31.3 Packaging materials 31.4 Packaging systems 31.5 Storage References Part VI Semidry-Fermented Sausages Chapter 32 US Products-Semidry Sausage 32.1 Introduction 32.2 Methods of acidification 32.3 Food safety 32.4 Manufacturing processes 32.5 Different types of US semidry sausage Reference Chapter 33 European Products 33.1 Introduction 33.2 Definition of "semidry-fermented sausage'' in Europe 33.3 General remarks on the manufacture of European-style semidry-fermented sausages 33.4 Types of European-style semidry-fermented sausage 33.5 Safety and stability 33.6 Conclusion References Part VII Dry-Fermented Sausages Chapter 34 US Products-Dry Sausage 34.1 Introduction 34.2 European versus US products 34.3 Definitions 34.4 US manufacturing processes for dried sausages. 34.5 Basic formulations and processes for selected large-diameter dried sausages.
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