Over the last decade, a policy revolution has been underway in the developing and emerging world. Country after country is systematically providing non-contributory transfers to poor and vulnerable people, in order to protect them against economic shocks and to enable them to invest in themselves and their children. Social safety nets or social transfers, as these are called, have spread rapidly from their early prominence in the middle-income countries of Latin America and Europe increasingly to nations in Africa, Asia and the Middle East - and today, over 130 developing countries have made investments in social safety nets an important pillar of economic development policies. The statistics and analysis in The State of Social Safety Nets 2015 capture this revolution, and reveal it in many dimensions at the country, regional, and international levels. This latest edition of a periodic series brings together a large body of data that was not previously available, drawing on the World Bank's ASPIRE database and other sources. Why have so many countries made a firm commitment to incorporate social safety nets as part of their social and economic policy architecture? Because social safety nets work. This report also reports on the rigorous evidence that demonstrates their impact, and also points the way to making them even more efficient and effective at meeting their development goals. This latest edition of a periodic series brings together a large body of data that was not previously available, drawing on the World Bank's ASPIRE database and other sources to examine trends in coverage, spending, and safety nets program performance.
Cover Contents Foreword Acknowledgments Structure of the Report Abbreviations Executive Summary Section 1. Inventory of Social Safety Net Programs Definitions Types and Coverage of Safety Net Programs Notes References Highlight 1. Safety Nets in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations Section 2. Spending on Social Safety Nets Spending Patterns Spending Composition Notes References Highlight 2. The Growing Role of Social Pensions Section 3. Policy, Institutions, and Administration Policies and Strategies Institutions Administration Highlight 3. Climate Change, Poverty, and the Importance of Leveraging Social Protection Section 4. Results and Evidence about Social Safety Nets Performance of Social Safety Net Programs Evidence from Impact Evaluations Notes References Highlight 4. Using Cash Transfers to Promote Early Childhood Development Section 5. Social Safety Nets in Urban Areas: Emerging Issues and Practices Notes Reference Highlight 5. Understanding Urban Poverty Appendixes A: Definitions, Methodology, and Data Sources B: Countries, Economies, and Territories Included in the Report C: Program Inventory D: Spending on Social Safety Net Programs E: Policies, Institutions, and Administration F: Performance Indicators (All Social Safety Nets) G: Coverage of Social Safety Nets, by Program Type Boxes 1.1 Types of Safety Nets 1.2 What "Conditionality" Really Implies 1.3 Response to the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa 2.1 Spending on Fuel Subsidies Is Often Greater than Spending on Social Safety Nets 4.1 ASPIRE Indicators Based on Household Surveys A.1 Coverage Considered from an Insurance or Actuarial Perspective Figures 1.1 How social safety nets fall within social protection and labor systems. 1.2 Social safety net programs have been rising steadily 1.3 School feeding programs are the most prevalent type of social safety net 1.4 Enrollment rates in social safety net programs vary by country, with over half not enrolling even the bottom fifth of the population 2.1 Countries and territories spend 1.6 percent of GDP on social safety net programs, on average, although the level varies by region 2.2 Variations in social safety net spending are higher in lower-income countries 2.3 Spending on social safety nets is weakly associated with income levels 2.4 The composition of social safety net spending varies by income level and the enabling environment 2.5 Spending composition varies by program type across regions 2.6 Old-age social pensions make up the highest share of worldwide spending on cash transfers B2.1.1 Fuel subsidies exceed social safety net spending in some countries 2.7 Half the world spends more on subsidies than on social safety nets, on average 2.8 Lower-income countries devote a higher share of their social safety net budgets to targeted programs 2.9 Many countries are below the cost-efficiency frontier of social safety nets 3.1 Status of social protection policies or strategies as of 2014 3.2 Existing social protection policy or strategy as of 2014, by type 3.3 Most countries use one lead coordinating ministry to coordinate social protection policies 3.4 Many countries lack social protection and labor system administration tools 4.1 Results chain of a safety net system 4.2 Coverage of the poor differs greatly by different types of safety nets and income groups 4.3 Coverage by different components of the social protection system varies by region 4.4 Higher coverage of the poor is associated with higher enrollment in social safety nets. 4.5 The average transfer size does not fill the poverty gap 4.6 The adequacy of transfers for the poor varies by program type 4.7 Conditional cash transfers are among the best targeted type of safety net 4.8 The poverty reduction effects of social safety nets depend on both the coverage of the poor and the adequacy of social safety net transfers 4.9 Selected impacts of social safety nets on school enrollment rates 4.10 Selected impacts of social safety nets on school attendance rates 4.11 The proportion of social safety net beneficiary households owning a productive asset has grown 4.12 Social safety nets have high multiplier effects 5.1 Coverage of social safety nets is lower in urban areas than in rural settings, but urban dwellers are better covered by social insurance and labor market programs 5.2 The urban poor are less covered by social safety nets than are the rural poor 5.3 Problems with the initial enrollment process of the Familias Program in Bogotá prevented most people from enrolling Map 5.1 The Programa de Apoyo Temporal al Ingreso (PATI) in El Salvador is implemented in precarious urban settlements Tables 1.1 Number of Countries with at Least One Type of Social Safety Net Program, by Region 1.2 Number of Countries with at Least One Type of Social Safety Net Program, by Country Income Group 1.3 Top Five Social Safety Net Programs, by Scale 1.4 Top Five Social Safety Net Programs, Share of Population 3.1 Social Protection Policy/Strategy as of 2014, Low- and Middle-Income Countries 3.2 Type of Policy/Strategy for Countries with Active Social Protection Policy/Strategy as of 2014, Low- and Middle-Income Countries 3.3 Key Coordination Bodies of Social Protection as of 2014, Low- and Middle-Income Countries 3.4 Social Protection and Labor System Administration Tools as of 2014. 3.5 Selected Examples of Operational Social and Beneficiary Registries 3.6 Selected Examples of Operational Social and Beneficiary Registries Being Developed 4.1 Enrollment and Coverage of the Poor Rates, by Country Income Group 4.2 Impact Evaluations, 1999-2015 4.3 Selected Recent Impact Evaluations of Social Safety Net Programs, 2014-15 A.1 Classification of Social Safety Net Programs A.2 Alternative Definitions of Coverage A.3 New Countries Included in the 2015 Edition (Household Surveys for 44 Countries) A.4 Household Surveys Used in the Report (105 Countries, Economies, and Territories).
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Print version: Bank, The World The State of Social Safety Nets 2015