Franklin

Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff.

Author/Creator:
Scholz, Miklas.
Publication:
Oxford : Elsevier Science & Technology, 2015.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (558 pages)
Edition:
2nd ed.
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Subjects:
Constructed wetlands.
Urban runoff.
Watershed management.
Form/Genre:
Electronic books.
Contents:
Front Cover
Wetlands for Water Pollution Control
Copyright
Contents
About the Author
Preface
Acknowledgments and Dedications
Common Acronyms and Abbreviations
1 - Water Quality Standards
1.1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS
1.2 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND TREATMENT OBJECTIVES
1.3 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
1.4 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
1.5 OTHER VARIABLES USED FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTEWATER
2 - Water Treatment
2.1 SOURCES OF WATER
2.2 STANDARD WATER TREATMENT
2.3 BASIC WATER CHEMISTRY
3 - Sewage Treatment
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 DESIGN FLOW RATES
3.3 TREATMENT PRINCIPLES
3.4 ENGINEERING CLASSIFICATION OF SEWAGE TREATMENT STAGES
4 - Stream Pollution and Effluent Standards
4.1 ORGANIC STREAM POLLUTION
4.2 PREDICTION OF ORGANIC STREAM POLLUTION
4.3 EFFLUENT DISCHARGE STANDARD PRINCIPLES
5 - Preliminary Treatment
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 DESIGN OF SCREENING UNITS
5.3 DESIGN DETAILS FOR SCREENING UNITS
5.4 COMMINUTORS
5.5 GRIT REMOVAL
6 - Primary Treatment
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 LOADING RATE METHODS
6.3 TANK DESIGN
6.4 DESIGN PARAMETERS
6.4.1 Design Settling Velocity
6.4.2 Horizontal Velocity
6.4.3 Time Ratio
6.5 ECONOMICS OF CONSTRUCTION
6.5.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
6.5.2 Circular Settling Tanks
6.6 DESIGN DETAILS
6.6.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
6.6.2 Circular Settling Tanks
6.7 HYDRAULIC LOSSES
6.8 GENERAL DESIGN DETAILS
6.9 DETAILS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SEDIMENTATION TANKS
6.9.1 Storm Tanks
6.9.2 Primary Sedimentation Tanks
6.9.2.1 Quiescent Tanks
6.9.2.2 Rectangular Horizontal-Flow Tanks
6.9.2.3 Imhoff Flow Tanks
6.9.2.4 Radial-Flow Tanks
6.9.3 Secondary Sedimentation
6.10 SEDIMENTATION AIDS
7 - Coagulation and Flocculation
7.1 THEORY OF SETTLING.
7.2 CLASSIFICATION OF SETTLING BEHAVIOR
7.3 IDEAL SETTLING
7.4 INTRODUCTION TO COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION
7.5 COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS
7.6 COAGULATION PROCESSES
7.7 COAGULATION CHEMICALS
7.8 OPERATION OF THE COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION PROCESS
7.9 RAPID MIXING
7.10 FLOCCULATION
8 - Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
8.1 INTRODUCTION TO SLUDGE BLANKET CLARIFICATION SYSTEMS
8.2 TYPES OF SLUDGE BLANKET CLARIFIER
8.3 PLATE SETTLING IN SLUDGE BLANKET CLARIFIERS
9 - Flotation Systems
9.1 FLOTATION USING BLOWN AIR
9.2 FLOTATION USING DISSOLVED AIR
9.3 FLOTATION UNITS
10 - Slow Filtration
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 SLOW SAND FILTRATION
10.2.1 Elements of a Slow Sand Filter
10.2.2 Mechanisms in a Slow Sand Filter
10.3 ALGAL ACTIONS
10.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
11 - Rapid Filtration
11.1 ELEMENTS OF A RAPID SAND FILTER
11.2 SAND BED
11.3 UNDERDRAIN SYSTEM
11.4 HYDRAULICS OF FILTRATION
11.5 COMPARISON WITH SLOW SAND FILTER
12 - Biological Treatment
12.1 AEROBIC SELF-PURIFICATION
12.2 WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS
12.2.1 Aerobic Ponds
12.2.2 Facultative Ponds
13 - Biological Filtration
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 TRICKLING FILTER
13.3 BASIC ECOLOGY
13.4 PROCESS VARIANTS
13.5 DESIGN OF BIOLOGICAL FILTERS
14 - Rotating Biological Contactors
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
14.3 DESIGN AND LOADING CRITERIA
14.4 PRINCIPLE ELEMENTS
14.5 OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS
15 - Activated Sludge Processes
15.1 BACKGROUND
15.2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
15.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS, PERCOLATING FILTRATION, AND WETLAND SYSTEM
15.4 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS TYPES
15.4.1 Conventional Complete Mix Activated Sludge Process
15.4.2 Series or Plug Flow System
15.4.3 Tapered Aeration.
15.4.4 Step Feed Activated Sludge Process
15.4.5 High-Rate Activated Sludge Process
15.4.6 Extended Aeration
15.4.7 Contact Stabilization
15.4.8 Oxidation Ditches
15.4.9 Deep Shaft Process
15.5 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS DESIGNS AND KINETICS
15.5.1 Diffused Air Aeration
15.5.2 Mechanical Aerators
15.5.3 Process Design
15.6 SUMMARY OF KEY PROCESS DESIGN CRITERIA
15.6.1 Loading Criteria
15.6.2 Reactor Types
15.6.3 Oxygen Demand
15.6.4 Nutrient Requirements
16 - Iron and Manganese Removal
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 BASIC REMOVAL PROCESSES
16.3 ADVANCED REMOVAL PROCESSES
17 - Water Softening
17.1 INTRODUCTION
17.2 LIME-SODA SOFTENING
17.3 LIME SOFTENING
17.4 EXCESS LIME SOFTENING
17.5 LIME RECOVERY
18 - Water Microbiology
18.1 STATISTICS FOR APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
18.2 PROTOZOA
18.2.1 Trophic Structure
18.2.1.1 Autotrophic Food Chain (Fueled Principally by Sunlight)
18.2.1.1.1 Producers
18.2.1.2 Heterotrophic Food Chain (Fueled by Organic Matter)
18.2.1.2.1 Decomposers (Including Bacteria and Fungi)
18.2.2 Kingdom Protista
18.2.2.1 Phylum I: Sarcomastigophora
18.2.2.1.1 Subphylum 1: Mastigophora
18.2.2.1.2 Subphylum 2: Opalinata
18.2.2.1.3 Subphylum 3: Sarcodina
18.2.2.2 Phylum II: Apicomplexa
18.2.2.3 Phylum III: Microspora
18.2.2.4 Phylum IV: Ciliophora
18.3 BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
18.3.1 Sewage Fungus
18.3.2 Saprobic System
18.4 EUTROPHICATION AND WATER TREATMENT
18.5 PROTOZOOLOGY OF TREATMENT PROCESSES
18.6 ODOR AND TOXINS OF NATURAL ORIGIN
18.7 PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS
18.7.1 Typical Diseases Related to Waters
18.7.2 Invertebrates Found in Main Supplies
18.7.3 Monitoring and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases
19 - Disinfection
19.1 DESTROYING PATHOGENS AND REQUIREMENTS OF A DISINFECTANT.
19.2 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF DISINFECTION
19.3 OZONE
19.4 CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORINE AS DISINFECTANTS
19.5 KINETICS OF CHLORINATION
19.6 APPLICATIONS OF CHLORINE
19.7 TECHNOLOGY OF CHLORINE ADDITION
19.8 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CHLORINE
20 - Constructed Wetlands
20.1 BACKGROUND
20.2 DEFINITIONS
20.3 HYDROLOGY OF WETLANDS
20.3.1 Hydro-Period and Water Budget
20.3.2 Precipitation, Interception, Through-Fall, and Stem-Flow
20.4 WETLAND CHEMISTRY
20.4.1 Oxygen
20.4.2 Carbon
20.4.3 Nitrogen
20.4.4 Phosphorus
20.4.5 Sulfur
20.5 WETLAND ECOSYSTEM MASS BALANCE
20.6 MACROPHYTES IN WETLANDS
20.6.1 Background
20.6.2 Primary Productivity
20.6.3 Phragmites australis
20.6.4 Typha latifolia
20.7 PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS
20.8 EXAMPLES FOR NATURAL AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
20.8.1 Riparian Wetlands
20.8.2 Constructed Treatment Wetlands
20.8.3 Wetlands for Stormwater Treatment
21 - Sludge Treatment and Disposal
21.1 INTRODUCTION
21.2 TESTS FOR DEWATERING OF SLUDGE
21.3 SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OBJECTIVES AND METHODS
21.4 TREATMENT PROCESSES
21.4.1 Lagoons
21.4.2 Aerobic Digestion
21.4.3 Other Treatment Methods
21.5 THICKENING AND DEWATERING OF SLUDGES
21.5.1 Chemical Conditioning
21.5.2 Air Drying
21.5.3 Gravity Thickening
21.5.4 Other Methods
21.6 PARTIAL DISPOSAL
21.6.1 Incineration
21.6.2 Pyrolysis
21.6.3 Composting
21.7 LAND DUMPING AND PASSIVE TREATMENT
22 - Wetlands Treating Contaminated Stream Water
22.1 INTRODUCTION
22.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
22.2.1 Experimental Plan and Limitations
22.2.2 Filter Media Composition
22.2.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
22.2.4 Analytical Procedures Including Metal Determination
22.2.5 Microbiological Examinations
22.2.6 Statistics.
22.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
22.3.1 Comparison of Treatment Efficiency
22.3.2 Water Quality and Macrophytes
22.3.3 Water Quality and Microbiology
22.3.4 Regression and Correlation Analysis as Predictive Tools
22.4 CONCLUSIONS
23 - Wetland Systems to Control Roof Runoff
23.1 INTRODUCTION
23.1.1 Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage
23.1.2 Case Study: Site Description
23.1.3 Purpose
23.2 METHODS
23.2.1 Design of the Study Site
23.2.2 Engineering Methods
23.2.3 Water Quality Analysis
23.2.4 Control of Algal Growth
23.2.5 System Capacity
23.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
23.3.1 Standard Design Considerations
23.3.2 System Design Comparisons
23.3.3 Water Quality Management
23.3.4 Twenty-Four-Hour Water Quality Monitoring
23.3.5 Aquatic Plant Management
23.4 CONCLUSIONS
24 - Wetlands Treating Road Runoff
24.1 INTRODUCTION
24.2 SITE, MATERIALS, AND METHODOLOGY
24.2.1 Case Study Site
24.2.2 Filter Design, Media Composition, and Limitations
24.2.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
24.2.4 Metal Nitrates
24.2.5 Metal Determinations
24.2.6 Organic Strength, Nutrient, and Other Determinations
24.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
24.3.1 Inflow Water Quality
24.3.2 Comparison of Annual Outflow Water Qualities
24.3.3 Heavy Metal Removal
24.3.4 Link between pH and Treatment of Metals
24.3.5 Analysis of Variance and Modeling
24.4 CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK
25 - Combined Wetland and Below-ground Detention Systems
25.1 INTRODUCTION
25.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS
25.2.1 System Design and Operation
25.2.2 Analytical Methods
25.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
25.3.1 Comparison of Costs
25.3.2 Inflow Water Quality
25.3.3 Comparison of Outflow Water Quality
25.3.4 Ecosoil and Turf
25.4 CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH.
26 - Modeling of Constructed Wetland Performance.
Notes:
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Local notes:
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Other format:
Print version: Scholz, Miklas Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff
ISBN:
9780444636126
9780444636072
OCLC:
929531691