Franklin

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory : Handling and Disposal of Chemicals.

Author/Creator:
Staff, National Research Council.
Publication:
Washington : National Academies Press, 1995.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (443 pages)
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Subjects:
Hazardous substances.
Chemicals -- Safety measures.
Hazardous wastes.
Form/Genre:
Electronic books.
Contents:
Prudent Practices in the Laboratory
Copyright
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Contents
OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS
THE CULTURE OF LABORATORY SAFETY (CHAPTER 1)
Education for Safety and Pollution Control
Factors Affecting Safety Practices in Laboratories
PRUDENT PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS (CHAPTER 2)
EVALUATING HAZARDS AND ASSESSING RISKS IN THE LABORATORY (CHAPTER 3)
MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS (CHAPTER 4)
WORKING WITH CHEMICALS (CHAPTER 5)
WORKING WITH LABORATORY EQUIPMENT (CHAPTER 6)
DISPOSAL OF WASTE (CHAPTER 7)
Hazardous Chemical Waste
Multihazardous Waste
Chemical-Radioactive Waste
Chemical-Biological Waste
Radioactive-Biological Waste
Chemical-Radioactive-Biological Waste
LABORATORY FACILITIES (CHAPTER 8)
GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF LABORATORIES (CHAPTER 9)
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations to the Environmental Protection Agency and Other Regulatory Agencies
Recommendations to the Industrial Sector
Recommendations to Chemical Laboratories
1 THE CULTURE OF LABORATORY SAFETY
1.A INTRODUCTION
1.B THE NEW CULTURE OF LABORATORY SAFETY
1.C RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR LABORATORY SAFETY
1.D SPECIAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN ACADEMIC LABORATORIES
1.D.1 High School Teaching Laboratories
1.D.2 Undergraduate Teaching Laboratories
1.D.3 Academic Research Laboratories
1.E THE SAFETY CULTURE IN INDUSTRY
1.F FACTORS THAT ARE CHANGING THE CULTURE OF SAFETY
1.F.1 Advances in Technology
1.F.2 The Culture of Pollution Prevention
1.F.2.1 Waste Management Hierarchy for Pollution Prevention
1.F.2.2 Making Pollution Prevention Work
1.F.3 Changes in the Legal and Regulatory Climate
1.G ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK
2 PRUDENT PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS
2.A INTRODUCTION
2.B LEVELS OF FORMALITY IN EXPERIMENT PLANNING.
2.C INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLANNING EXPERIMENTS
2.D INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING
2.E STEPS FOR PLANNING AN EXPERIMENT
2.E.1 Chapter 3: Evaluating Hazards and Assessing Risks in the Laboratory
2.E.2 Chapter 4: Management of Chemicals
2.E.3 Chapter 5: Working with Chemicals
2.E.4 Chapter 6: Working with Laboratory Equipment
2.E.5 Chapter 7: Disposal of Waste
2.E.6 Chapter 8: Laboratory Facilities
2.E.7 Chapter 9: Governmental Regulation of Laboratories
3 EVALUATING HAZARDS AND ASSESSING RISKS IN THE LABORATORY
3.A INTRODUCTION
3.B SOURCES OF INFORMATION
3.B.1 Chemical Hygiene Plan
3.B.2 Material Safety Data Sheets
3.B.3 Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries
3.B.4 Labels
3.B.5 Additional Sources of Information
3.B.6 Computer Services
3.B.6.1 The National Library of Medicine Databases
3.B.6.2 Chemical Abstracts Databases
3.B.6.3 Informal Forum
3.C TOXIC EFFECTS OF LABORATORY CHEMICALS
3.C.1 Basic Principles
3.C.1.1 Dose-Response Relationships
3.C.1.2 Duration and Frequency of Exposure
3.C.1.3 Routes of Exposure
3.C.1.3.1 Inhalation
3.C.1.3.2 Contact with Skin or Eyes
3.C.1.3.3 Ingestion
3.C.1.3.4 Injection
3.C.2 Types of Toxins
3.C.2.1 Irritants
3.C.2.2 Corrosive Substances
3.C.2.3 Allergens
3.C.2.4 Asphyxiants
3.C.2.5 Carcinogens
3.C.2.6 Reproductive and Developmental Toxins
3.C.2.7 Neurotoxins
3.C.2.8 Toxins Affecting Other Organs
3.C.3 Assessing Risks Due to the Toxic Effects of Laboratory Chemicals
3.C.3.1 Acute Toxicants
3.C.3.2 Corrosive Substances, Irritants, and Allergens
3.C.3.3 Carcinogens
3.C.3.4 Reproductive and Developmental Toxins
3.D FLAMMABLE, REACTIVE, AND EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS
3.D.1 Flammable Hazards
3.D.1.1 Flammable Substances
3.D.1.2 Flammability Characteristics.
3.D.1.2.1 Flash Point
3.D.1.2.2 Ignition Temperature
3.D.1.2.3 Limits of Flammability
3.D.1.3 Classes of Flammability
3.D.1.4 Causes of Ignition
3.D.1.4.1 Spontaneous Combustion
3.D.1.4.2 Ignition Sources
3.D.1.4.3 Oxidants Other Than Oxygen
3.D.1.5 Special Hazards
3.D.2 Reactive Hazards
3.D.2.1 Water Reactives
3.D.2.2 Pyrophorics
3.D.2.3 Incompatible Chemicals
3.D.3 Explosive Hazards
3.D.3.1 Explosives
3.D.3.2 Peroxides
3.D.3.3 Other Oxidizers
3.D.3.4 Dusts
3.D.3.5 Explosive Boiling
3.D.3.6 Other Considerations
3.D.4 The Dirty Dozen
3.E PHYSICAL HAZARDS
3.E.1 Compressed Gases
3.E.2 Nonflammable Cryogens
3.E.3 High-Pressure Reactions
3.E.4 Vacuum Work
3.E.5 Ultraviolet, Visible, and Near-Infrared Radiation
3.E.6 Radiofrequency and Microwave Hazards
3.E.7 Electrical Hazards
3.E.8 Magnetic Fields
3.E.9 Cuts, Slips, Trips, and Falls
3.F BIOHAZARDS
3.G HAZARDS FROM RADIOACTIVITY
4 MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS
4.A INTRODUCTION
4.B SOURCE REDUCTION
4.B.1 Importance of Minimizing Chemical Orders
4.B.2 Strategies to Minimize Hazardous Waste Generation
4.B.2.1 Microscale Work
4.B.2.2 Step-by-Step Planning for Minimization
4.B.2.3 Substitution of Materials
4.B.3 Strategies to Avoid Multihazardous Waste Generation
4.C ACQUISITION OF CHEMICALS
4.C.1 Ordering Chemicals
4.C.2 Receiving Chemicals
4.C.3 Responsibilities for Chemicals Being Shipped or Transported
4.D INVENTORY AND TRACKING OF CHEMICALS
4.D.1 General Considerations
4.D.2 Exchange or Transfer of Chemicals
4.D.3 Labeling Commercially Packaged Chemicals
4.D.4 Labeling Other Chemical Containers
4.D.5 Labeling Experimental Materials
4.D.6 Use of Inventory and Tracking Systems in Emergency Planning
4.E STORAGE OF CHEMICALS IN STOCKROOMS AND LABORATORIES.
4.E.1 General Considerations
4.E.2 Containers and Equipment
4.E.3 Storing Flammable and Combustible Liquids
4.E.4 Storing Gas Cylinders
4.E.5 Storing Highly Reactive Substances
4.E.6 Storing Toxic Substances
4.F RECYCLING OF CHEMICALS, CONTAINERS, AND PACKAGING
4.F.1 General Considerations
4.F.2 Solvent Recycling
4.F.3 Mercury Recycling
4.F.4 Reclamation of Heavy Metals
5 WORKING WITH CHEMICALS
5.A INTRODUCTION
5.B PRUDENT PLANNING
5.C GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR WORKING WITH HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
5.C.1 Personal Behavior
5.C.2 Minimizing Exposure to Chemicals
5.C.2.1 Avoiding Eye Injury
5.C.2.2 Avoiding Ingestion of Hazardous Chemicals
5.C.2.3 Avoiding Inhalation of Hazardous Chemicals
5.C.2.4 Avoiding Injection of Hazardous Chemicals
5.C.2.5 Minimizing Skin Contact
5.C.2.6 Clothing and Protective Apparel
5.C.3 Housekeeping
5.C.4 Transport of Chemicals
5.C.5 Storage of Chemicals
5.C.6 Disposal of Chemicals
5.C.7 Use and Maintenance of Equipment and Glassware
5.C.8 Handling Flammable Substances
5.C.9 Working with Scaled-up Reactions
5.C.10 Responsibility for Unattended Experiments and Working Alone
5.C.11 Responding to Accidents and Emergencies
5.C.11.1 General Preparation for Emergencies
5.C.11.2 Handling the Accidental Release of Hazardous Substances
5.C.11.3 Notification of Personnel in the Area
5.C.11.4 Treatment of Injured and Contaminated Personnel
5.C.11.5 Spill Containment
5.C.11.6 Spill Cleanup
5.C.11.7 Handling Leaking Gas Cylinders
5.C.11.8 Handling Spills of Elemental Mercury
5.C.11.9 Responding to Fires
5.D WORKING WITH SUBSTANCES OF HIGH TOXICITY
5.D.1 Planning
5.D.2 Experiment Protocols Involving Highly Toxic Chemicals
5.D.3 Designated Areas
5.D.4 Access Control.
5.D.5 Special Precautions for Minimizing Exposure to Highly Toxic Chemicals
5.D.6 Preventing Accidents and Spills with Substances of High Toxicity
5.D.7 Storage and Waste Disposal
5.D.8 Multihazardous Materials
5.E WORKING WITH BIOHAZARDOUS AND RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
5.E.1 Biohazardous Materials
5.E.2 Radioactive Materials
5.F WORKING WITH FLAMMABLE CHEMICALS
5.F.1 Flammable Materials
5.F.2 Flammable Liquids
5.F.3 Flammable Gases
5.F.4 Catalyst Ignition of Flammable Materials
5.G WORKING WITH HIGHLY REACTIVE OR EXPLOSIVE CHEMICALS
5.G.1 Overview
5.G.2 Reactive or Explosive Compounds
5.G.2.1 Personal Protective Apparel
5.G.2.2 Protective Devices
5.G.2.3 Evaluating Potentially Reactive Materials
5.G.2.4 Determining Reaction Quantities
5.G.2.5 Conducting Reaction Operations
5.G.3 Organic Peroxides
5.G.3.1 Peroxide Detection Tests
5.G.3.2 Disposal of Peroxides
5.G.4 Explosive Gases and Liquefied Gases
5.G.5 Hydrogenation Reactions
5.G.6 Reactive or Explosive Materials Requiring Special Attention
5.G.7 Chemical Hazards of Incompatible Chemicals
5.H WORKING WITH COMPRESSED GASES
5.H.1 Chemical Hazards of Compressed Gases
5.H.2 Specific Chemical Hazards of Select Gases
6 WORKING WITH LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
6.A INTRODUCTION
6.B WORKING WITH WATER-COOLED EQUIPMENT
6.C WORKING WITH ELECTRICALLY POWERED LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
6.C.1 General Principles
6.C.1.1 Outlet Receptacles
6.C.1.2 Wiring
6.C.1.3 General Precautions for Working with Electrical Equipment
6.C.1.4 Personal Safety Techniques for Use with Electrical Equipment
6.C.1.5 Additional Safety Techniques for Equipment Using High Current or High Voltage
6.C.2 Vacuum Pumps
6.C.3 Refrigerators and Freezers
6.C.4 Stirring and Mixing Devices
6.C.5 Heating Devices
6.C.5.1 Ovens.
6.C.5.2 Hot Plates.
Notes:
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Local notes:
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Other format:
Print version: Staff, National Research Council Prudent Practices in the Laboratory
ISBN:
9780309560733
9780309052290
OCLC:
923268382