Franklin

Climate Change : Observed Impacts on Planet Earth.

Author/Creator:
Letcher, Trevor.
Publication:
Oxford : Elsevier, 2015.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (634 pages)
Edition:
2nd ed.
Status/Location:
Loading...

Options
Location Notes Your Loan Policy

Details

Other records:
Subjects:
Climatic changes.
Global environmental change.
Form/Genre:
Electronic books.
Contents:
Front Cover
Climate Change Observed Impacts on Planet Earth
Copyright
Contents
List of Contributors
Preface
PART 1 - A GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF CLIMATE CHANGE
1 - CLIMATE CHANGE THROUGH EARTH'S HISTORY
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CLIMATE MODELS
3. LONG-TERM CLIMATE TRENDS
4. EARLY CLIMATE HISTORY
5. PHANEROZOIC GLACIATIONS
6. THE MESOZOIC - EARLY CENOZOIC GREENHOUSE
7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENOZOIC ICEHOUSE
8. ASTRONOMICAL MODULATION OF CLIMATE
9. MILANKOVITCH CYCLICITY IN QUATERNARY (PLEISTOCENE) CLIMATE HISTORY
10. QUATERNARY SUB-MILANKOVITCH CYCLICITY
11. THE HOLOCENE
12. CLIMATE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE
13. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
PART 2 - INDICATORS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
2 - GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURES
1. INTRODUCTION
2. BASIC DATA AVAILABILITY
3. ANALYSES OF LAND SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURES
4. ANALYSES OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES
5. GLOBAL CHANGES
6. UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION
7. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTREMES AND VARIABILITY
8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
9. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
3 - ARCTIC SEA ICE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OBSERVED CHANGES IN THE STATE OF ARCTIC SEA ICE
2.1 SEA ICE EXTENT AND CONCENTRATION
2.2 SEA ICE THICKNESS AND VOLUME
2.3 SEA ICE DRIFT
2.4 SEA ICE AGE
2.5 LENGTH OF MELT SEASON
3. CLASSIFYING AND COMPREHENDING THE OBSERVED CHANGES
4. CONCLUSIONS
Acknowledgements
REFERENCES
4 - ANTARCTIC SEA ICE CHANGES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. WHY ANTARCTIC ICE IS DIFFERENT
3. SNOW ON THE ICE
4. THE ANNUAL ICE CYCLE AND ITS CHANGES
5. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE ICE?
6. RESPONSE OF THE ANTARCTIC TO CHANGES ELSEWHERE
REFERENCES
5 - LAND ICE: INDICATOR AND INTEGRATOR OF CLIMATE CHANGE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 GEOGRAPHICAL CONTEXT
1.2 ANATOMY OF AN ICE SHEET
1.3 LAND ICE AND SEA LEVEL.
2. MASS BALANCE OF GLACIERS AND ICE SHEETS
2.1 SURFACE MASS BALANCE
2.2 ICE DYNAMICS
3. LONG-TERM BEHAVIOUR
3.1 GLACIAL-INTERGLACIAL CYCLES
3.2 HOLOCENE VARIABILITY
4. OBSERVATIONS OF RECENT CHANGES
4.1 GLACIERS AND ICE CAPS
4.2 ICE SHEETS
5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
REFERENCES
6 - POLEWARD EXPANSION OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
1. INTRODUCTION
2. THE GENERAL CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
3. EVIDENCE FOR CIRCULATION CHANGE
3.1 THE WIDENING TROPICS
3.2 INDICATORS OF TROPICAL WIDTH
3.3 THE DECREASING INTENSITY OF THE TROPICAL CIRCULATION
3.4 EXTRATROPICAL CIRCULATION CHANGE
3.5 MAGNITUDE OF PAST AND FUTURE TRENDS
4. CAUSE FOR CIRCULATION CHANGE
4.1 DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT EFFECTS
4.2 NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
4.3 TROPICAL SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
4.4 EXTRATROPICAL SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
4.5 STRUCTURE OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
4.6 ARCTIC TEMPERATURE CHANGE
4.7 GREENHOUSE GAS INCREASES
4.8 DEPLETION AND RECOVERY OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE
4.9 SOLAR VARIABILITY
4.10 NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC AEROSOL
4.11 LINEARITY OF THE RESPONSE
5. EMERGING DYNAMICAL MECHANISMS
5.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIRCULATION, CLOUDS, AND RADIATION
5.2 STRATOSPHERIC LINKAGES
5.3 TROPOPAUSE HEIGHTS
5.4 STATIC STABILITY
5.5 TROPICAL PUSH
5.6 EXTRATROPICAL PULL
6. SUMMARY, OUTSTANDING PROBLEMS, AND CONCLUSIONS
Acknowledgements
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
REFERENCES
7 - WEATHER PATTERN CHANGES IN THE TROPICS AND MID-LATITUDES
1. INTRODUCTION
2. OBSERVED CHANGES IN SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
3. OBSERVED CHANGES IN EXTRATROPICAL PATTERNS
4. CHANGES IN TROPICAL PATTERNS
4.1 EL NIÑO SOUTHERN OSCILLATION
4.2 TROPICAL CYCLONES
4.3 MONSOONS
5. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
8 - BIRD ECOLOGY.
1. INTRODUCTION
2. INDICATORS OF CHANGE
2.1 RANGE
2.1.1 Size and Position of Breeding Ranges
2.1.2 Ranges During the Nonbreeding Season
2.2 MIGRATION
2.2.1 Timing of Migration to the Breeding Grounds
2.2.2 Timing of Migration from the Breeding Grounds
2.2.3 Migration Routes and Wintering Areas
2.2.4 Partial Migration
2.2.5 Eruptions
2.3 REPRODUCTION
2.3.1 Onset of Breeding Period
2.3.2 Length of Breeding Period
2.3.3 Breeding Success
2.3.4 Sexual Selection
2.4 MORPHOLOGY
2.5 DISEASES
3. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
9 - MAMMAL ECOLOGY
1. INTRODUCTION: HOW DOES CLIMATE IMPACT MAMMALS?
2. CLIMATE IMPACTS SCALE FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL, DAILY TO GEOLOGICAL
3. DEMONSTRATED IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAMMALS
3.1 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL METABOLISM
3.2 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL MORPHOLOGY
3.3 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL PHENOLOGY
3.4 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL POPULATION DYNAMICS
3.5 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL RANGE LIMITS
3.6 CLIMATE IMPACTS ON MAMMAL COMMUNITIES AND DIVERSITY
4. CONCLUSION: LINKING TIME AND SPACE IN MAMMAL RESPONSES TO CLIMATE
REFERENCES
10 - INSECT COMMUNITIES
1. INTRODUCTION
2. RANGE CHANGES
2.1 RANGE CHANGES - LIFE HISTORY
2.2 RANGE CHANGES - ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
2.3 RANGE CHANGES AND ADAPTATION
3. CHANGES IN PHENOLOGY
3.1 PHENOLOGY CHANGES - MISMATCHES
3.2 PHENOLOGY CHANGES - GENERATIONS AND ABUNDANCE
3.3 PHENOLOGY AND ADAPTATION
4. PHYSIOLOGY
5. RESPONSES TO OTHER CLIMACTIC VARIABLES
5.1 RESPONSES TO PRECIPITATION
5.2 RESPONSES TO CO2 LEVELS
5.3 INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF WARMING, PRECIPITATION, AND CO2
6. INSECT COMMUNITIES UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE
7. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
11 - SEA LIFE (PELAGIC ECOSYSTEMS)
1. PELAGIC AND PLANKTONIC ECOSYSTEMS.
1.1 SENSITIVITY OF PELAGIC AND PLANKTONIC ECOSYSTEMS TO CLIMATE AND GLOBAL CHANGE
1.2 MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO CLIMATE AND GLOBAL CHANGE
1.3 OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND OTHER ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON PELAGIC AND PLANKTONIC ECOSYSTEMS
2. OBSERVED IMPACTS ON PELAGIC AND PLANKTONIC ECOSYSTEMS
2.1 BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CHANGES AND NORTHWARD SHIFTS
2.2 LIFE CYCLE EVENTS AND PELAGIC PHENOLOGY
2.3 PLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND PELAGIC PRODUCTIVITY
2.4 PELAGIC BIODIVERSITY AND INVASIVE SPECIES
3. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY OF KEY INDICATORS
REFERENCES
12 - CHANGES IN CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. TROPICAL CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS
3. THE ASSOCIATED FAUNA OF CORAL REEFS
4. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
13 - MARINE BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE OCEANS
3. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MARINE BIODIVERSITY
3.1 LOCAL SCALE
3.2 REGIONAL SCALE
3.3 GLOBAL SCALE
3.4 OTHER FACTORS RELATING TO CLIMATE CHANGE
4. CUMULATIVE IMPACTS AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
5. BIODIVERSITY AS INSURANCE AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
6. CONCLUSIONS
Acknowledgements
REFERENCES
14 - INTERTIDAL INDICATORS OF CLIMATE AND GLOBAL CHANGE
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
2.1 USING LONG-TERM DATA SETS TO DETECT CLIMATE CHANGE
2.2 BIOGEOGRAPHIC RESPONSES OF INTERTIDAL BIOTA
2.2.1 Europe
2.2.2 Arctic
2.2.3 United States
2.2.4 Southern Hemisphere
2.2.5 South Africa
2.2.6 Asia
2.3 EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS
2.4 INTERACTIONS
3. MECHANISMS AND MICROCLIMATE
3.1 PHYSIOLOGY
3.2 REPRODUCTION AND RECRUITMENT
3.3 MODELLING
4. ADDITIONAL IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE
4.1 OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
4.2 COASTAL ZONE DEVELOPMENT
4.3 CLIMATE CHANGE AND NON-NATIVE SPECIES
5. CONCLUSIONS
Acknowledgements.
REFERENCES
15 - PLANT ECOLOGY
1. INTRODUCTION
2. CHANGES IN PHENOLOGY
3. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION
4. COMMUNITY COMPOSITION
5. PLANT GROWTH
6. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
16 - RISING SEA LEVELS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. IS SEA LEVEL RISING?
3. WHY IS SEA LEVEL RISING?
4. ARE CONTEMPORARY RATES OF SEA LEVEL RISE UNUSUAL?
5. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
17 - OCEAN CURRENT CHANGES
1. INTRODUCTION
2. THE VARIABLE OCEAN
3. OCEANOGRAPHER'S TOOLS
4. THE ATLANTIC MERIDIONAL OVERTURNING CIRCULATION
4.1 MOTIVATION
4.2 CIRCULATION, DRIVING MECHANISMS
4.3 THE AMOC'S ROLE IN HEAT TRANSPORT, OCEANIC UPTAKE OF CARBON AND VENTILATION OF THE DEEP OCEAN
4.4 SIMULTANEOUS CHANGES OF THE AMOC AND ATLANTIC CLIMATE IN THE PAST
4.5 WHY SHOULD THE AMOC CHANGE AS PART OF ONGOING CLIMATE CHANGE?
4.6 CAN WE DETECT CHANGES IN THE AMOC? IS THE AMOC CHANGING ALREADY?
5. CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
18 - OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY
1.2 COMBINED IMPACTS OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
2. EVIDENCE FROM OBSERVATIONS
2.1 EVIDENCE FROM GEOLOGICAL AND ICE CORE RECORDS
2.2 EVIDENCE FROM LONG-TERM OCEANOGRAPHIC TIME SERIES
2.3 EVIDENCE FROM OCEANOGRAPHIC CRUISES
3. MODEL PREDICTIONS OF FUTURE CHANGE
4. IMPACTS
4.1 PAST OBSERVATIONS
4.2 CURRENT OBSERVATIONS
4.3 EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS
4.4 COMBINED IMPACTS
5. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND FEEDBACK TO CLIMATE
5.1 CHANGES TO THE OCEAN CARBON CYCLE
5.2 CHANGES TO OCEAN NUTRIENT CYCLES
5.3 CHANGES TO FLUX OF OTHER CLIMATE REACTIVE GASES FROM THE OCEAN
6. ADAPTATION, RECOVERY AND MITIGATION
6.1 ADAPTATION
6.2 RECOVERY
6.3 MITIGATION
7. CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
19 - LICHENS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. PREDICTED EFFECTS
3. OBSERVED EFFECTS
4. UNCERTAIN EFFECTS.
5. HABITATS WITH VULNERABLE LICHENS.
Notes:
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Local notes:
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Other format:
Print version: Letcher, Trevor Climate Change
ISBN:
9780444635358
9780444635242
OCLC:
921887874