It is said that deception among people in a civilized society is something to be loathed even though it seems to be part of human nature; but deception in war is a virtue. Properly designed and executed, stratagems reduce the horrific costs of war.This book is a comprehensive collection of classic articles on deception, hand-picked and expertly introduced by well-known experts on military deception. The purpose of this book is to set in motion a renaissance for using deception as an instrument of statecraft. The various sections are designed to cumulatively provide sufficient breadth and depth on the subject to satisfy both the novice as well as the expert. Packed with expert commentary, interesting background information, and original readings, this book provides the reader with sufficient knowledge to pursue General Eisenhower's vision for the proper role of deception in support of the national interest.
Intro The Art and Science of Military Deception Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1 Beware of the Dog Section I: The Ethics of Political-Military Deception Chapter 2 Intelligence Ethics Section II: Principles and Other Fundamentals Introduction The Structure of Deception Chapter 3 On Simulation and Dissimulation Chapter 4 The 8 Principles of Security and the 8 Principles of Deception The Principles of Security The Principles of Deception Chapter 5 Ruses and Stratagems of War Ruses and Stratagems of War Chapter 6 The Problem of Deception The Problem of Deception The Infrequency and Neglect of Deception Principles, Techniques and Effectiveness of Deception Types of Deception Chapter 7 Deception Maxims: Fact and Folklore Chapter 8 The Principle of Naturalness Conclusion Chapter 9 Tactical Deception in Air-Land Warfare Section III: Myths of Deception Introduction Chapter 10 Meinertzhagen's False Claim to the Haversack Ruse (1917) Chapter 11 The Ultra Secret: Enigma Unwrapped A Review of F.W. Winterbotham's The Ultra Secret Chapter 12 The Ultra Variations: A Review of Anthony Cave Brown's Bodyguard of Lies Section IV Theories: How Deception Works Introduction How Deception Works Chapter 13 "Window" as written in Most Secret War Chapter 14 The Psychology of Deception Chapter 15 "Killing No Murder" The Strategy of Indirect Approach Chapter 16 Cognitive Factors in Deception and Counterdeception Introduction Biases in Perception Implications for Intelligence Analysis Cognitive Biases Biases in Estimating Probabilities Biases in Evaluation of Evidence Oversensitivity to Consistency Biases in the Perception of Causality Bias Toward Causal Explanations Internal vs. External Causes of Behavior Conclusion Appendix. Endnotes Chapter 17 Chapter 17 The Theory of Practical Joking-Its Relevance to Physics Chapter 18 Styles in Deception Styles In Deception Chapter 19 The Process of Deception Section V: Deception Traditions Introduction Deception Traditions A British Tradition of Stratagem: And Its Influence on American, Israeli, Indian and Pakistani Doctrine Chapter 20 Conditions Making for Success and Failure of Denial and Deception: Democratic Regimes Chapter 21 Some Notes on the Organization of Deception (1944) Some Notes on the Organization of Deception in the United States Forces American Attempts at Deception: A Spotty Record Chapter 22 The Actor's Tale Chapter 23 American Strategic Deception in the Pacific: 1942-44 Chapter 24 A Pentagon Proposal to Continue a Deception Organization after WW2 (1945)-General Conclusions General Recommendations A Russian Tradition of Stratagem:1939 to the Present Chapter 25 Catching NATO Unawares: Soviet Army Surprise and Deception Techniques Surprise in Its Strategic Context The Advantages of Surprise A Heavy Blow Speed and Flexibility in the Advance Simultaneous Attacks Throughout the Enemy's Depth Air Superiority The Possibilities of Strategic Surprise The Limits of Modern Surveillance Assessing Intentions Operational Surprise Eight Methods Operational Deception Examples of Maskirova Tasks of Maskirovka Principles of Deception Conclusions Chapter 26 The Red Mask: The Nature and Legacy of Soviet Military Deception The Chinese Tradition of Stratagem: circa. 350 BC to the Present Chapter 27 Foreward to General Griffith's Sun Tzu Chapter 28 Stratagem: The Chinese View in the Sun Tzu Chapter 29 Chinese Deception Doctrine: A View from Open Sources Preface Introduction and Overview. Implications for the U.S. Limits of Open Sources Background of the Two Authors A Unique Chinese Deception Theory? Examples of Chinese Deception Aspirations Chinese History as a Source of Future Deception Models Section VI: Tactical Camouflage: Now You See It, Now You Don't Introduction Chapter 30 Now You See It, Now You Don't: Camoufleurs, Conjurers and Pickpockets Section VII: Strategic Deception Introduction Strategic Deception Chapter 31 Biggest Hoax of the War: Operation FORTITUDE: The Allied deception plan that fooled the Germans about Normandy Chapter 32 Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis - Learning from the Past Maskirovka Close-hold Planning Developing a Cover Story Getting the Cubans on Board Keeping the Secret at Home Secrecy in Transit Unloading in Cuba Movement to Field Sites Disingenuous Diplomacy Denouement In Conclusion Footnotes Chapter 33 The Barry and Thomas Critique of the Pentagon Report: In The Lessons and Non-Lessons of the Air and Missile Campaign in Kosovo Chapter 34 Denial and Deception Practices of WMD Proliferators: Iraq and Beyond Section VIII: Irregular Warfare and Non-State Actors Introduction Terrorists and Other Non-State Actors-Constraints and Opportunities Chapter 35 Conditions Making for Success and Failure of Denial and Deception: Nonstate and Illicit Actors Chapter 36 The Evolution of a Revolt Chapter 37 The Inherent Vulnerabilities of Technology: Insights from the National Training Center's Opposing Force Chapter 38 Tactical Deception and Strategic Surprise in al-Qai'da's Operations Chapter 39 How Can Weak Powers Win Section IX: Ambush and Counterambush Introduction Ambush Chapter 40 How to Ambush a NATO Fortress Main Circumstances. Chapter 41 High Desert Ambush: Hard Lessons Learned the Hard Way Contemporary Issues Chapter 42 A Modern Day "Trojan Horse"-Operation JAQUE and the Use of Stratagem in a Hostage Rescue Operation Operation Willing Spirit Partnership - U.S. and Colombian Special Operational Forces Operation Willing Spirit Campaign Planning The Reconnaissance Plan and Operation Ellipse Problems From Within Cracking the FARC Communication Codes Operation JAQUE-"Check" Conclusions Section X: Deception Planners and Planning Introduction Deception Planners and Planning Preconditions Process Chapter 43 A Commander Improvises His Own Deception Planning Team Chapter 44 Deception Planning in 145 Different Disciplines: Lessons from Behind Other Hills How They Deceive The Essence of Deception: Hiding the Real and Showing the False What They Hide and Show: The 5 Ws Bluff and Double Bluff The Theory of Outs In Con Games In Magic In General In War Time Out of Joint Magicians-The One-Ahead Method Practical Jokers: It's Earlier Than You Think Con Artists: It's Later Than You Think Soldiers The Theory of Indirect Approach Direction, Misdirection, and Indirection Section XI: Naval Warfare Chapter 45 How to Cheat on Naval Tonnage Treaty Limits 1919-1939 Chapter 46 Harwood and the First Deception of WWII, 1939 Section XII: Air War Chapter 47 MiG Sweep-Operation BOLO Chapter 48 Aerial Deception since the Second World War Chapter 49 Detection of the B-2 Bomber and a Brief History on 'Stealth' Scouting for Surveillance Detection of the B-2 Stealth Bomber and a Brief History on "Stealth" Overview of stealth technology Potential vulnerabilities The Roke Manor system A natural technological progression Military consequences. Section XIII: Ground War: Theory and Practice Chapter 50 Night Action by Gideon at Moreh - perhaps 1249 B.C. Chapter 51 BCTP: Be Unpredictable, Take Risks-Or Lose Chapter 52 The Monkey's Paw Chapter 53 1st Cav in Desert Storm-Deception, Firepower and Movement Ground War: U.S. Training for Conventional Field Combat Introduction Chapter 54 Deception Operations in REFORGER 88 Chapter 55 Voices in the Sand: Deception Operations at the NTC Chapter 56 OPFOR Counterreconnaissance at the National Training Center Section XIV: Economic Warfare Chapter 57 The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets The Farewell Dossier Soviet S& T Espionage US Computer Export Policy Strong Suspicions and Skepticism Presidential Interest A Defector in Place Interest in Technology Transfer A Deception Operation National Security Directive Good-by to Farewell An Important Contribution Notes Section XV: Cost Effectiveness Chapter 58 The One Percent Solution: Costs and Benefits of Military Deception Section XVI: When Your Deception Plan is Compromised: Plan B Chapter 59 Battle of The Gothic Line, 25 Aug 1944: Operation OLIVE Section XVII: When Deception Backfires Chapter 60 Polyakov's Run Act One "Top Hat" Red Herring? Act Two Act Three Chapter 61 Counterintelligence (CI) vs. Counterespionage (CE) Chapter 62 Counter-Deception Planning Counter-Deception Planning: Methodologies The Nature of a Counter-Deception System Seat-of-the-Pants Counter-Deception Methods Detection of Deception: Three Theories Reconstructive Inference Testing for Signals and Sprignals Incongruity Testing Guarding Against Expectation, Self-Deception, and Commitment Vulnerability Assessment Countermeasures Notes Conclusion A Cultural Handicap?. The Erosion of Strategy and Stratagem.
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