This multi-contributor, international volume synthesizes contributions from the world's leading soil scientists and ecologists, describing cutting-edge research that provides a basis for the maintenance of soil health and sustainability.
Cover Contents List of Contributors Introduction Section 1-The Living Soil and Ecosystem Services Introduction 1.1 Soil as a Habitat 1.1.1 Introduction 1.1.2 Conditions in soils 1.1.3 Adaptive strategies of soil organisms 1.1.4 Self-organization and the spatial organization of soils 1.1.5 Discrete scales in soil function 1.1.6 The challenge of an eco-efficient use of soils 1.1.7 Approaches to soil ecological research 1.1.8 Conclusions 1.2 Soil Biodiversity and Functions 1.2.1 Soil biodiversity 1.2.2 How to investigate soil communities 1.2.3 Diversity-function relationships 1.2.4 Taking a holistic view to soil diversity-ecosystem functioning 1.2.5 Conclusions 1.3 Ecosystem Services Provided by the Soil Biota 1.3.1 Introduction 1.3.2 Understanding ecosystem functioning 1.3.3 Understanding ecosystem structure: revisiting the functional group concept 1.3.4 Understanding effects of environmental drivers and land management on ecosystem functioning and services 1.3.5 Working with nature 1.3.6 Landscape context 1.3.7 Conclusions Synthesis Section 2-From Genes to Ecosystem Services Introduction 2.1 From Single Genes to Microbial Networks 2.1.1 Introduction 2.1.2 Analyzing microbial genes to understand ecosystem functioning 2.1.3 Methodological approaches to the gene-based study of microbial communities and networks 2.1.4 Genes in microbial networks of organic matter decomposition and biodegradation of pollutants 2.1.5 Microbial genes in nitrogen turnover cascades 2.1.6 Genes underlying microbial communication 2.1.7 Microbial genes for interacting in the plant environment 2.1.8 From genes to microbial networks: future prospects 2.2 From Genes to Ecosystems: Plant Genetics as a Link between Above- and Belowground Processes. 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 The role of plant functional traits in bridging species interactions with soil community dynamics 2.2.3 The role of plant genetic variation on soil communities 2.2.4 The role of plant genetic variation on ecosystem processes 2.2.5 The evolutionary implications of plant-soil linkages 2.2.6 Conclusions and future directions 2.3 Delivery of Soil Ecosystem Services: From Gaia to Genes 2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Ecosystem services delivery and Gaia theory 2.3.3 At what biological levels are soil ecosystem services produced? 2.3.4 At what spatial scales can we describe and quantify soil ecosystem services? 2.3.5 Use of soil ecosystem services in a policy context 2.3.6 Conclusions Synthesis Section 3-Community Structure and Biotic Assemblages Introduction 3.1 Succession, Resource Processing, and Diversity in Detrital Food Webs 3.1.1 The surprising diversity of soil communities 3.1.2 From litter and carrion to soil organic matter: detrital succession in soils 3.1.3 Mechanisms and models for detrital succession 3.1.4 Can successional specialization explain coexistence and the diversity in soils? 3.1.5 Latitudinal gradients in soil diversity: detrital food webs thwart ecology's oldest pattern 3.1.6 Future directions in understanding detrital succession 3.2 Patterns of Biodiversity at Fine and Small Spatial Scales 3.2.1 The riddle of soil biodiversity 3.2.2 It is all a matter of scale 3.2.3 Spatial distribution of soil functions 3.2.4 Spatial scales are nested 3.3 Linking Soil Biodiversity and Human Health: Do Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Contribute to Food Nutrition? 3.3.1 Soil health is linked to human health and global food security 3.3.2 Traditional ways of boosting crop nutrients 3.3.3 A critical role for soil microbes. 3.3.4 Using rhizosphere microbes to create healthier food 3.3.5 Negative effects of microbes on food quality 3.3.6 The full potential of soil microbes to improve human health 3.3.7 Conclusion 3.4 Ecosystem Influences of Fungus-Growing Termites in the Dry Paleotropics 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2 Fungus-growers 3.4.3 Fungus-grower influences on ecosystem processes 3.4.4 Fungus-growers as ecosystem engineers 3.4.5 Synthesis 3.4.6 Take-home messages 3.4.7 Future directions 3.5 The Biogeography of Microbial Communities and Ecosystem Processes: Implications for Soil and Ecosystem Models 3.5.1 Predicting environmental responses of soil processes 3.5.2 Misplaced physics envy in soil models 3.5.3 Functional redundancy, similarity, equivalence, and biogeography 3.5.4 Experimental tests of functional equivalence 3.5.5 Putting ecology into soil models 3.5.6 Revisiting the functional paradigm in soil ecology 3.6 Biogeography and Phylogenetic Community Structure of Soil Invertebrate Ecosystem Engineers: Global to Local Patterns, Implications for Ecosystem Functioning and Services and Global Environmental Change Impacts 3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.2 Macroecological patterns in soil invertebrate communities 3.6.3 Termite biogeography and phylogenetic community structure 3.6.4 Ant biogeography and phylogenetic community structure 3.6.5 Earthworms 3.6.6 Enchytraeids 3.6.7 Trait-based ecology of soil invertebrate ecosystem engineers with a view to the possible effects on global environmental change and ecosystem functioning and services Synthesis Section 4-Global Changes Introduction 4.1 Climate Change and Soil Biotic Carbon Cycling 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Climate change and plant-soil interactions 4.1.3 Direct effects 4.1.4 Indirect effects 4.1.5 Making predictions. 4.1.6 Conclusions 4.2 The Impact of Nitrogen Enrichment on Ecosystems and Their Services 4.2.1 Nitrogen-the Earth's most limiting resource? 4.2.2 Direct impacts of nitrogen enrichment on soil chemistry and plant and microbial metabolism 4.2.3 Effects of nitrogen enrichment on plants and the soil biota 4.2.4 Net effects on ecosystem services 4.2.5 Conclusion and future directions 4.3 Urbanization, Soils, and Ecosystem Services 4.3.1 Introduction to urbanization and soils in cities 4.3.2 Urbanization effects on soils 4.3.3 Examples of ecosystem services in cities 4.3.4 Management for urban ecosystem services 4.3.5 Summary 4.4 Management of Grassland Systems, Soil, and Ecosystem Services 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Plant-soil interactions 4.4.3 Ecosystem services provided by the soil biota 4.4.4 Impact of management intensity of grassland systems 4.4.5 Trade-offs between ecosystem services 4.4.6 Conclusions Synthesis Section 5-Sustainable Soils Introduction 5.1 Soil Productivity and Erosion 5.1.1 Introduction 5.1.2 Soil gain versus soil loss, and accelerated versus natural erosion 5.1.3 Erosion's effect on agricultural productivity 5.1.4 The importance of erosion-induced productivity losses for agriculture 5.1.5 Summary 5.2 Agroforestry and Soil Health: Linking Trees, Soil Biota, and Ecosystem Services 5.2.1 Introduction 5.2.2 How trees infl uence soil properties and biota 5.2.3 Agroforestry systems increase abundance of soil biota 5.2.4 Soil biological processes and soil-based ecosystem services 5.2.5 Tree-soil biota interactions foster the provision of soil-based ecosystem services 5.2.6 Soil health monitoring systems 5.2.7 Conclusions and recommendations 5.3 Soil Health: The Concept, Its Role, and Strategies for Monitoring. 5.3.1 The concept of soil health 5.3.2 The evolution of soil health 5.3.3 Monitoring soil health 5.3.4 Summary and conclusions 5.4 Managing Soil Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 5.4.1 Introduction 5.4.2 Edible crop diversity 5.4.3 Plant selection impacts on ecosystem services 5.4.4 Plant selection impacts on soil biodiversity 5.4.5 Managing plant diversity 5.4.6 Tillage impacts on ecosystem services 5.4.7 Tillage impacts on soil biodiversity 5.4.8 Chemical application impacts on ecosystem services 5.4.9 Chemical application impacts on soil biodiversity 5.4.10 Organic material application impacts on ecosystem services 5.4.11 Organic material application impacts on soil biodiversity 5.4.12 Organic cropping system impacts on ecosystem services 5.4.13 Organic cropping system impacts on soil biodiversity 5.4.14 Conclusions 5.5 Soil Ecosystem Resilience and Recovery 5.5.1 Introduction 5.5.2 Soil disturbance, resilience, and recovery 5.5.3 Resilience and recovery: soil organic matter dynamics 5.5.4 Resilience and recovery: soil nutrient cycling 5.5.5 Future directions 5.6 Applying Soil Ecological Knowledge to Restore Ecosystem Services 5.6.1 Introduction 5.6.2 Low to high legacy: lessons from restoration of mined land 5.6.3 Moderate legacy: restoration of agricultural systems 5.6.4 High legacy under dynamic change: preventing invasion and restoring invaded systems 5.6.5 Novel legacy: no analog ecosystems and environmental conditions 5.6.6 Conclusions Synthesis Index A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.