Principles of Water Treatment has been developed from the best selling reference work Water Treatment, 3rd edition by the same author team. It maintains the same quality writing, illustrations, and worked examples as the larger book, but in a smaller format which focuses on the treatment processes and not on the design of the facilities.
Intro Principles of Water Treatment Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1 The Importance of Principles 1-2 The Importance of Sustainability References Chapter 2 Water Quality and Public Health 2-1 Relationship between Water Quality and Public Health History of Waterborne Disease Role of Water in Transmitting Disease 2-2 Source Waters for Municipal Drinking Water Systems Groundwater Rivers Lakes and Reservoirs Seawater Wastewater- Impaired Waters 2-3 Regulations of Water Treatment in the United States U.S. Public Health Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act SDWA Amendments and Updates Current Updating Process for Drinking Water Contaminants Acute versus Chronic Exposure 2-4 Evolving Trends and Challenges in Drinking Water Treatment 2-5 Summary and Study Guide References Chapter 3 Process Selection 3-1 Process Selection Based on Contaminant Properties 3-2 Other Considerations in Process Selection Removal Efficiency Reliability Multiple-Barrier Concept Flexibility Successful Operating History Utility Experience Cost 3-3 Sustainability and Energy Considerations Life-Cycle Assessment Life-Cycle Assessment of Water Treatment Facilities 3-4 Design and Selection of Process Trains 3-5 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 4 Fundamental Principles of Environmental Engineering 4-1 Units of Expression for Chemical Concentrations 4-2 Chemical Equilibrium Reaction Stoichiometry Concentration and Activity Equilibrium Constants Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants 4-3 Chemical Kinetics Rate Equations and Reaction Order Empirical Reaction Rate Expressions Effect of Temperature on Rate Constants. Determining Reaction Rate Constants 4-4 Reactions Used in Water Treatment Acid-Base Reactions Precipitation-Dissolution Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4-5 Mass Balance Analysis Control Volumes and System Boundaries Fundamental Mass Balance Equation Accumulation Term Input and Output Terms Reaction Term 4-6 Introduction to Reactors and Reactor Analysis Types of Reactors Time Dependence Reaction Characteristics Input Characteristics for Flow Reactors 4-7 Reactions in Batch Reactors 4-8 Hydraulic Characteristics of Ideal Flow Reactors Completely Mixed Flow Reactor Plug Flow Reactor 4-9 Reactions in Ideal Flow Reactors Completely Mixed Flow Reactor Plug Flow Reactor 4-10 Measuring the Hydraulic Characteristics of Flow Reactors with Tracer Tests Analysis of Tracer Data 4-11 Describing the Hydraulic Performance of Real Flow Reactors The t10/τ Ratio The Tanks-in-Series Model 4-12 Reactions in Real Flow Reactors 4-13 Introduction to Mass Transfer 4-14 Molecular Diffusion Brownian Motion Fick's First Law Diffusion in the Presence of Fluid Flow 4-15 Diffusion Coefficients Liquid-Phase Diffusion Coefficients for Large Molecules and Particles Liquid-Phase Diffusion Coefficients for Small Neutral Molecules Liquid-Phase Diffusion Coefficients for Electrolytes Gas-Phase Diffusion Coefficients for Organic Compounds 4-16 Models and Correlations for Mass Transfer at an Interface Surface Area Available for Mass Transfer Film Model Two-Film Model Boundary Layer Models 4-17 Evaluating the Concentration Gradient with Operating Diagrams Development of Operating Diagrams Analysis Using Operating Diagrams 4-18 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 5 Coagulation and Flocculation. 5-1 Role of Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Coagulation Process Flocculation Process Practical Design Issues 5-2 Stability of Particles in Water Particle-Solvent Interactions Electrical Properties of Particles Particle Stability Destabilization 5-3 Principles of Coagulation Adsorption and Charge Neutralization Adsorption and Interparticle Bridging Precipitation and Enmeshment 5-4 Coagulation Practice Inorganic Metallic Coagulants Organic Polymers Enhanced Coagulation Jar Testing for Coagulant Evaluation 5-5 Principles of Mixing for Coagulation and Flocculation 5-6 Rapid-Mix Practice 5-7 Principles of Flocculation Rate of Particle Collision Collision Frequency Function Comparison of Collision Frequency Functions 5-8 Flocculation Practice Vertical Turbine Flocculators Horizontal Paddle Wheel Flocculators 5-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 5-10 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 6 Sedimentation 6-1 Principles of Discrete (Type I) Particle Settling 6-2 Discrete Settling in Ideal Rectangulor Sedimentation Basins 6-3 Principles of Flocculant (Type II) Particle Settling Advantages of Flocculant Settling Analysis of Flocculant Settling 6-4 Principles of Hindered (Type III) Settling Solids Flux Analysis Limiting Flux Rate Area Required for Solids Thickening 6-5 Conventional Sedimentation Basin Design Rectangular Sedimentation Basins Circular Sedimentation Basins and Upflow Clarifiers 6-6 Alternative Sedimentation Processes Tube and Lamella Plate Clarifiers Solids Contact Clarifiers Ballasted Sedimentation 6-7 Physical Factors Affecting Sedimentation Density Currents Wind Effects Outlet Currents Equipment Movement. 6-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 6-9 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 7 Rapid Granular Filtration 7-1 Physical Description of a Rapid Granular Filter Filter Media Underdrains Surface Wash Wash Troughs Gullet Valves and Piping Flow Control 7-2 Process Description of Rapid Filtration Filtration Rate Pretreatment Requirements 7-3 Particle Capture in Granular Filtration Straining Depth Filtration Formulation of a Filtration Model Transport Mechanisms Sedimentation Interception Attachment Efficiency 7-4 Head Loss through a Clean Filter Bed 7-5 Modeling of Performance and Optimization 7-6 Backwash Hydraulics Stratification Multimedia Filters Removal of Fines 7-7 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 7-8 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 8 Membrane Filtration 8-1 Classification of Membrane Processes 8-2 Comparison to Rapid Granular Filtration 8-3 Principal Features of Membrane Filtration Equipment Membrane Geometry Filtration Direction through Hollow Fibers Material Properties Material Chemistry Internal Membrane Structure Module Configuration 8-4 Process Description of Membrane Filtration Cross-Flow and Dead End Flow Regimes Pretreatment Backwash Chemically Enhanced Backwash Chemical Wash Cycle Clean-in-Place Cycle Integrity Testing and Monitoring Posttreatment Residual Handling 8-5 Particle Capture in Membrane Filtration Retention Rating Rejection and Log Removal Filtration Mechanisms Removal of Microorganisms 8-6 Hydraulics of Flow through Membrane Filters Temperature and Pressure Dependence 8-7 Membrane Fouling Mechanisms of Fouling Reversibility of Fouling Fouling by Natural Organic Matter. Resistance-in-Series Model Membrane Fouling Index 8-8 Sizing of Membrane Skids 8-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 8-10 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 9 Reverse Osmosis 9-1 Principal Features of a Reverse Osmosis Facility Membrane Elements Membrane Structure and Chemistry Membrane Skids, Stages, and Arrays Pretreatment Posttreatment Concentrate Stream Energy Recovery Concentrate Management 9-2 Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis Diffusion and Osmosis Osmotic Pressure Reverse Osmosis 9-3 Mass Transfer of Water and Solutes through RO Membranes Mass Transfer through Dense Materials-The Solution-Diffusion Model Mechanisms of Solute Rejection Quantifying Solute Rejection Equations for Water and Solute Flux 9-4 Performance Dependence on Temperature and Pressure 9-5 Concentration Polarization 9-6 Fouling and Scaling Fouling by Particulate Matter Scaling from Precipitation of Inorganic Salts Fouling from Oxidation and Precipitation of Soluble Metals Biological Fouling 9-7 Element Selection and Membrane Array Design Manufacturer Design Programs Pilot Testing 9-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 9-9 Summary and Study Guide Homework Problems References Chapter 10 Adsorption and Ion Exchange 10-1 Introduction to the Adsorption Process Pore Size and Surface Area Adsorption Media Adsorption Contactors Adsorption Mechanisms 10-2 Adsorption Equilibrium Langmuir Isotherm for a Single Solute Freundlich Isotherm for a Single Solute Multicomponent Adsorption 10-3 Adsorption Kinetics 10-4 Introduction to the Ion Exchange Process Ion Exchange Resin Structure Classification of Resins by Functional Group Ion Exchange Contactors Exchange Capacity Selectivity. 10-5 Ion Exchange Equilibrium.
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.