Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites.

Stokke, Douglas D.
Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013.
1 online resource (315 pages)
1st ed.
Wiley Series in Renewable Resource Ser.
Wiley Series in Renewable Resource Ser.

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SCIENCE / Chemistry / General.
Electronic books.
Over the past two decades, there has been a shift in research and industrial practice, and products traditionally manufactured primarily from wood are increasingly combined with other nonwood materials of either natural or synthetic origin. Wood and other plant-based fiber is routinely combined with adhesives, polymers, and other "ingredients" to produce composite materials. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites draws together widely scattered information concerning fundamental concepts and technical applications, essential to the manufacture of wood and natural fiber composites. The topics addressed include basic information on the chemical and physical composition of wood and other lignocellulosic materials, the behavior of these materials under thermocompression processes, fundamentals of adhesion, specific adhesive systems used to manufacture composite materials, and an overview of the industrial technologies used to manufacture major product categories. The book concludes with a chapter on the burgeoning field of natural fiber-plastic composites. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites is a valuable resource for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying forest products and wood science, as well as for practicing professionals working in operational areas of wood- and natural-fiber processing. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit Topics covered include:  Overview of lignocellulosic material, their chemical and physical composition Consolidation behavior of wood and fiber in response to heat and pressure Fundamentals of adhesion Adhesives used to bond wood and lignocellulosic composites Manufacturing technology of major product types Fiber/plastic composites.
Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites
Series Preface
1 Wood and Natural Fiber Composites: An Overview
1.1 Introduction
1.2 What Is Wood?
1.3 Natural Fibers
1.3.1 Fibers
1.3.2 Lignocellulosic Materials
1.3.3 Worldwide Lignocellulosic Fiber Resources
1.3.4 Wood as a Teaching Example
1.4 Composite Concept
1.4.1 Composites Are Important Materials
1.4.2 What Is a Composite?
1.4.3 Taxonomy of Matrix Composites
1.4.4 Laminar Composites
1.4.5 Taxonomy of Wood and Natural Fiber Composites
1.4.6 Composite Scale
1.5 Cellular Solids
1.5.1 Natural and Synthetic Cellular Solids
1.5.2 Relative Density
1.6 Objectives and Organization of This Book
2 Lignocellulosic Materials
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Chemical Composition of Lignocellulosic Materials
2.2.1 Polymers: Structure and Properties
2.2.2 Lignocellulose
2.2.3 Cellulose
2.2.4 Hemicelluloses
2.2.5 Pectins
2.2.6 Lignin
2.2.7 Extractives and Extraneous Materials
2.3 The Woody Cell Wall as a Multicomponent Polymer System
2.3.1 Skeletal Framework Polymers
2.3.2 Reinforced Matrix Theory
2.3.3 Cell Wall Ultrastructure
2.3.4 Cell Wall Structure Dictates Physical Properties
2.3.5 Cell Wall Structure from Molecular to Anatomic Level
2.4 Anatomical Structure of Representative Plants
2.4.1 Plant Cell Walls Are Not Solitary Entities
2.4.2 Structure of Grain Crop Stems
2.4.3 Structure of Herbaceous Biomass Crop Stems
2.4.4 Structure of Bast Fiber Stems
2.4.5 Structure of Woody Monocotyledons
2.4.6 Wood
2.5 Comparison of Representative Plant Stems
2.6 Cellular Solids Revisited
3 Wood as a Lignocellulose Exemplar
3.1 Introduction.
3.2 Wood as a Representative Lignocellulosic Material: Important Physical Attributes
3.3 Moisture Interactions
3.3.1 Moisture Content
3.3.2 Hygroscopicity
3.3.3 States of Water in Wood
3.3.4 Capillary or Free Water
3.3.5 Shrinking and Swelling due to Moisture Flux
3.4 Density and Specific Gravity of Wood
3.4.1 Density of Wood
3.4.2 Specific Gravity of Wood
3.5 Wood: A Cellular Solid
3.5.1 Relative Density of Wood
3.6 Mechanical Properties
3.6.1 Compression Strength
3.6.2 Compression Strength of Wood versus Relative Density
3.6.3 Mechanical Properties in Context
3.7 Wood Is the Exemplar: Extending Principles to Other Plant Materials
4 Consolidation Behavior of Lignocellulosic Materials
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Synthetic Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers
4.2.1 Polyethylene
4.2.2 Polystyrene: Isotactic, Syndiotactic, and Atactic
4.2.3 Degree of Crystallinity, Revisited
4.2.4 Thermal Softening of Amorphous Polymers: Glass Transition Temperature, Tg
4.3 Glass Transition Temperature of Wood Polymers
4.3.1 Glass Transition Temperature of Wood Polymers: Empirical Data
4.3.2 Kwei Equation: Modeling Tg of Wood Polymers
4.4 Viscoelastic Behavior of Lignocellulosic Materials
4.4.1 Time-Temperature Superposition
4.4.2 Viscoelasticity in Mechanical Systems
4.4.3 Stress and Strain
4.4.4 A Trampoline Analogy
4.4.5 Hysteresis
4.4.6 A Classic Model of Viscoelastic Stress Relaxation: Maxwell Body
4.4.7 Lignocellulosic Materials Are Viscoelastic
4.5 Heat and Mass Transfer
4.5.1 Hot Pressing Parameters
4.5.2 Thermodynamics 101
4.5.3 Thermodynamics of Water
4.5.4 Mass Transfer: Moisture Vapor Movement
4.5.5 Heat Transfer: Conduction
4.5.6 Heat Transfer: Convection
4.5.7 Internal Mat Conditions.
4.6 Consolidation Behavior: Viscoelasticity Manifested during Hot Pressing
4.6.1 Response of a Viscoelastic Foam to Compression
4.6.2 Viscoelastic Response of Lignocellulosic Material to Thermocompression
4.6.3 Vertical Density Profile
4.7 Press Cycles
4.7.1 Effect of Press Closing Time on Development of Vertical Density Profile
4.7.2 Effect of Mat Moisture Content on Face Density
4.7.3 Effect of Furnish Density and Compaction Ratio on Composite Properties
4.8 Horizontal Density Distribution
4.8.1 In-Plane Density Variation
4.8.2 Thickness Swelling
5 Fundamentals of Adhesion
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Overview of Adhesion as a Science
5.2.1 A Brief History of Adhesion Science
5.2.2 Adhesive Bonding
5.2.3 Adherend
5.2.4 Adhesive
5.2.5 Adhesive Joint
5.2.6 Marra's Concept of Bond Anatomy
5.2.7 Contemporary Concept of Bond Anatomy
5.2.8 Scale of Adhesive Bond Interactions
5.3 Adhesion Theories
5.3.1 Overview of Adhesion Theories
5.3.2 Mechanical Adhesion
5.3.3 Specific Adhesion
5.4 Surface Interactions
5.4.1 Surface Interactions Are Critical Determinants of Adhesion
5.4.2 Surface Energy of Liquids and Solids
5.4.3 Wetting Phenomenon
5.5 Work of Adhesion: Dupré Equation
5.6 Lignocellulosic Adherends
5.6.1 Adhesive Resin-Substrate Interactions
5.6.2 Adhesion as a Surface Phenomenon
5.6.3 Lignocellulosic Adherends Present Challenges to Adhesion
5.6.4 Wood Adherend Variables
5.6.5 Mechanisms of Wood Bonding
5.6.6 Durable Wood Adhesive Bonds
6 Adhesives Used to Bond Wood and Lignocellulosic Composites
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Nature of Wood Adhesives
6.2.1 Most Wood Adhesives Are Organic Polymers
6.2.2 Molecular Weight, Viscosity, Gel Time, and Tack Are Important Attributes of Polymeric Adhesive Resins.
6.3 Adhesives Used to Bond Wood and Other Natural Fibers
6.3.1 Classification of Adhesives by Origin
6.3.2 Classification of Adhesives by Structural Integrity and Service Environment
6.3.3 Classification of Adhesives by Response to Heat
6.4 Amino Resins
6.4.1 Urea Formaldehyde Resins
6.4.2 Melamine Formaldehyde Resins
6.5 Phenolic Resins
6.5.1 Resoles (Resols)
6.5.2 Novolacs (Novolaks)
6.5.3 Comparison of Key Attributes and Uses of Resoles and Novolacs
6.6 Resorcinol Resins
6.6.1 Synthesis
6.6.2 Cure Chemistry
6.6.3 Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (PRF)
6.7 Polymeric Isocyanate Adhesives
6.7.1 Isocyanate Synthesis
6.7.2 Isocyanates Used as Wood Adhesives
6.7.3 Polyurethane Adhesives
6.8 Epoxy Adhesives
6.8.1 Synthesis
6.8.2 Cure Chemistry
6.8.3 Durability of Wood-Epoxy Bonds
6.9 Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives
6.9.1 Synthesis
6.9.2 Solvent Loss Cure Mechanism
6.9.3 Modified PVAc
6.10 Hot Melts and Mastics
6.10.1 Hot Melts
6.10.2 Mastics
6.11 Adhesives from Renewable Natural Resources
6.11.1 Classes of Natural Materials for Adhesives
6.11.2 Lignins in Adhesive Formulation
6.11.3 Plant-Derived Tannins as Adhesives
6.11.4 Soy Protein Adhesives
6.11.5 Animal Protein Adhesives
6.11.6 Adhesives Future
7 Technology of Major Wood- and Fiber-Based Composites: An Overview
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Wood and Natural Fiber Composites as a Material Class
7.3 Taxonomy of Adhesive-Bonded Composites Technology
7.4 A Generic Process Flow
7.5 Technology of Adhesive-Bonded Materials Based on Form of Raw Material Input
7.5.1 Glued-Laminated Timber and Cross-Laminated Timber
7.5.2 Plywood, Laminated Veneer Lumber and Parallel Strand Lumber
7.5.3 Strand Composites
7.5.4 Particleboard
7.5.5 Medium Density Fiberboard and Hardboard.
7.6 Laboratory Panel Calculations
7.6.1 Material Needs
7.6.2 Clamping or Consolidation Pressure
7.6.3 Glue Application Rate for Lumber and Veneer Substrates
7.7 Measurement Conventions for Production Capacity and Output
7.7.1 Measures for Lumber- and Timber-Like Products
7.7.2 Measures for Panel Products
7.8 Technology of Inorganic-Bonded Materials
7.8.1 A Brief History of Inorganic-Bonded Materials
7.8.2 Cement-Bonded Materials
7.8.3 Gypsum-Bonded Materials
8 Natural Fiber and Plastic Composites
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Synthetic Petrochemical Polymers
8.1.2 Bio-Based Polymers
8.2 Natural Fibers and Their Temperature-Related Performance
8.2.1 Physical, Mechanical, and Chemical Properties
8.2.2 Thermal Degradation
8.3 Plastic Composite Processing Technology
8.3.1 Extrusion: A Fundamental Processing Platform
8.3.2 Injection Molding
8.3.3 Compression Molding
8.3.4 Thermal Forming
8.4 Overcoming Incompatibility of Synthetic Polymers and Natural Fibers
8.4.1 Introduction
8.4.2 Coupling Agents: Definition
8.4.3 Coupling Agents: Classification and Function
8.4.4 Coupling Agents: Coupling Mechanism
8.5 Melt Compounding Natural Fibers and Thermoplastics
8.5.1 Challenges for Melt Blending of Natural Fibers
8.5.2 Compounding Processes
8.5.3 Compounding Principle
8.5.4 Melt Rheological Properties
8.5.5 Industrial Compounding and Extrusion of WPC
8.6 Performance of Natural Fiber and Plastic Composites
8.6.1 Mechanical Properties
8.6.2 Thermal Expansion Properties
8.6.3 Biological Resistance Properties
8.6.4 UV Resistance Properties
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Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Wu, Qinglin.
Han, Guangping.
Stevens, Christian V.
Other format:
Print version: Stokke, Douglas D. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites