Franklin

MRI at a Glance.

Author/Creator:
Westbrook, Catherine.
Publication:
New York : John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2016.
Format/Description:
Book
1 online resource (138 pages)
Edition:
3rd ed.
Series:
At a Glance Ser.
At a Glance Ser.
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Subjects:
Medical physics.
Form/Genre:
Electronic books.
Contents:
Intro
MRI at a Glance
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
How to use your textbook
About the companion website
1 Magnetism and electromagnetism
Magnetic susceptibility
Paramagnetism
Super-paramagnetism
Diamagnetism
Ferromagnetism
Electromagnetism
2 Atomic structure
Introduction
Motion within the atom
MR active nuclei
3 Alignment
The classical theory
The quantum theory
What do the quantum and classical theories tell us?
4 Precession
Precessional (Larmor) frequency
Precessional phase
5 Resonance and signal generation
Energy absorption
Phase coherence
Did you know?
The MR signal
6 Contrast mechanisms
What is contrast?
Extrinsic contrast parameters
Intrinsic contrast mechanisms
The composition of fat and water
7 Relaxation mechanisms
Relaxation processes
Field inhomogeneities
8 T1 recovery
T1 recovery in fat
T1 recovery in water
Control of T1 recovery
9 T2 decay
T2 decay in fat
T2 decay in water
Control of T2 decay
Did you know?
10 T1 weighting
Typical values
11 T2 weighting
Typical values
12 PD weighting
Typical values
Other types of weighting
13 Conventional spin echo
Mechanisms of CSE
Contrast
Typical values
Uses
14 Fast or turbo spin echo - how it works
Mechanism
Contrast
15 Fast or turbo spin echo - how it is used
Typical values
Single echo T2 weighting
Single echo T1 weighting
Uses
16 Inversion recovery
Mechanism
Contrast
Typical values
Uses
17 Gradient echo - how it works
Mechanism
18 Gradient echo - how it is used
Typical values
Proton density weighting
Uses
19 The steady state
Echo generation in the steady state
20 Coherent gradient echo
Mechanism
Typical values
Uses
21 Incoherent gradient echo.
Mechanism
Typical values
Uses
22 Steady-state free precession
Mechanism
Typical values
Uses
23 Balanced gradient echo
Mechanism
Typical values
Uses
24 Ultrafast sequences
Turbo gradient echo
Echo planar imaging
Typical values
Uses
25 Diffusion and perfusion imaging
Diffusion weighted imaging
Clinical applications
Perfusion imaging
Clinical applications
26 Functional imaging techniques
Functional MR imaging (fMRI)
BOLD imaging
Clinical applications
Spectroscopy
Clinical applications
27 Gradient functions
How gradients work
28 Slice selection
Mechanism
Slice thickness
29 Phase encoding
Mechanism
30 Frequency encoding
Mechanism
Did you know?
31 K space - what is it?
32 K space - how is it filled?
Did you know?
33 K space and image quality
K space - signal and contrast
Phase data
Frequency data
K space - spatial resolution
34 Data acquisition - frequency
Changing the receive bandwidth
Changing the frequency matrix
35 Data acquisition - phase
Did you know?
36 Data acquisition - scan time
TR
Phase matrix
Number of signal averages (NSA)
Types of acquisition
Reducing scan time
37 K space traversal and pulse sequences
K space traversal in gradient echo
K space traversal in spin echo
K space traversal in single shot
K space traversal in spiral imaging
38 Alternative K space filling techniques
Partial or fractional averaging
Rectangular FOV
Anti-aliasing/over-sampling
Centric imaging
Keyhole imaging
Parallel imaging
39 Signal to noise ratio
Proton density
Coil type and position
TR
TE
Flip angle
Number of signal averages (NSA)
Receive bandwidth
40 Contrast to noise ratio
Administration of contrast
Magnetization transfer contrast.
Chemical suppression techniques
Flow techniques
T2 weighting
41 Spatial resolution
Voxel volume and SNR
Voxel volume and resolution
Changing the matrix and SNR
Changing the matrix and resolution
Changing the FOV and SNR
Changing the FOV and resolution
Changing slice thickness and SNR
Changing slice thickness and resolution
42 Chemical shift artefacts
Appearance
Remedy
Appearance
Remedy
43 Phase mismapping
Appearance
Remedy
Respiratory compensation
Cardiac and peripheral gating
Pre-saturation
Gradient moment nulling
Increasing NSA/NEX
Other remedies
44 Aliasing
Frequency aliasing
Phase aliasing
Appearance
Remedy
Did you know?
45 Other artefacts
Magnetic susceptibility
Appearance
Remedy
Cross-talk
Appearance
Remedy
Truncation artefact
Appearance
Remedy
Zipper artefact
Appearance
Remedy
46 Flow phenomena
Time-of-flight phenomenon
Entry slice phenomenon
Direction of flow
Intra-voxel dephasing
47 Time-of-flight MR angiography
Mechanism
2D vs 3D time-of-flight MRA
Clinical applications
Typical values
General advantages of TOF MRA
General disadvantages of TOF MRA
48 Phase contrast MR angiography
Mechanism
2D vs 3D phase contrast MRA
Clinical uses
Typical values
49 Contrast-enhanced MR angiography
Mechanism
Administration
Image timing
50 Contrast agents
Gadolinium
Chelation
Administration
Clinical applications
Iron oxide
Administration
Clinical applications
Other contrast agents
51 Magnets
Permanent magnets
Electromagnets
Resistive magnets
Superconducting electromagnets
Shim coils
52 Radiofrequency coils
Transmit coils
Receiver coils
RF coil types
Transmit/receive coils
Surface coils.
Phased array coils (linear array)
Parallel imaging coils (volume array)
53 Gradients and other hardware
Gradients
The pulse control unit
The operator interface
Data storage
54 MR safety - bio-effects
Static magnetic field bio-effects
Time-varying field bio-effects
Site planning
55 MR safety - projectiles
Quenching
Metallic implants and prostheses
What is not safe to scan?
What is probably safe to scan?
Appendix 1(a): The results of optimizing image quality
Appendix 1(b): Parameters and their associated trade-offs
Appendix 2: Artefacts and their remedies
Appendix 3: Main manufacturers' acronyms
Glossary
Index
EULA.
Notes:
Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources.
Local notes:
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2021. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Other format:
Print version: Westbrook, Catherine MRI at a Glance
ISBN:
9781119053538
9781119053552
OCLC:
951975265