Chromosomes [electronic resource] : in Mitosis and Interphase / by H.G. Schwarzacher.

Schwarzacher, H. G. (Hans Georg), author., Author,
Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg : Imprint: Springer, 1976.
1 online resource (VIII, 184 p.)
1st ed. 1976.
Die lebendige Masse. ; 1 / 3
Die lebendige Masse. ; 1 / 3

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Human anatomy.
Life sciences.
Local subjects:
Anatomy. (search)
Biomedicine, general. (search)
Life Sciences, general. (search)
The progress in Micromorphology and Biochemistry of the last decades has led to a rather far reaching understanding of the function of the genes. Much is also known about their morphological organization within the cell, particularly their reduplication and segregation in connection with the process of cell division. The intensive light microscopic studies of the earlier cytological era on cell division and chromosomes, which laid the basis for this understanding are very comprehensively covered by WASSERMANN (1929) in his masterly contribution "Wachstum und Vermehrung der lebendigen Masse" in this handbook. There exist also many more recent reviews on chromosomes and on cytogene­ tics (e. g. SWANSON, 1960; MAZIA, 1961; TURPIN and LEJEUNE, 1965; WmTEHousE, 1969; HAMERTON, 1971; FORD, 1973). However, although some of them cover the more recent findings in man, they have either had to rely on more favorable species for detailed basic information or handled cytogenetic problems from a more practical and clinical point of view. Since moreover, the last few years have brought a flood of new information on chromosomes due to new cytological techniques, a new review on human chromosomes would seem justified within the frame of this handbook. This review will be restricted to human somatic chromosomes, i. e. it wi11leave out meiosis, and will provide information on other species only if this seems necessary for increased clarity.
I. Introduction
II Nomenclature and General Morphology of Chromosomes
III. Chromosome Morphology during Mitotic Phases
1. Introduction
2. The Mitotic Phases
3. Changes of Chromosome Morphology during Mitosis
4. Differential Contractions of Chromosomes
IV. The Human Karyotype
1. Introduction
2. Simple Staining Methods
3. Special Staining Methods
4. Individual Variations
V. Structural Differences along the Chromosomes (Chromosome Banding)
1. Introduction
2. Repetitive DNA
3. Cytological Localization of Repetitive DNA
4. Differences in Base Composition of DNA
5. Differences in the Protein Components
6. Packing Differences
7. The Binding of Giemsa to Chromosomal Components
8. Conclusions on the Mechanisms Involved in Banding
9. DNA-Replication Pattern
10. Chromomeres and G-Bands
11. Genetic Mapping in Human Chromosomes
VI. Fine Structure of Chromosomes
1. Introduction
2. Structure of the Fibrils
3. Arrangement of Fibrils
4. Single Stranded or Multistranded Chromatids?
5. Major Coils
6. Giemsa Bands, Interband Zones and Secondary Constrictions
7. Bridges Between Chromatids and Chromosomes
8. Centromeric Region
9. Attachment of Chromosome Fibrils to the Nuclear Membrane
10. Summary of the Findings on the Fine Structure of Chromosomes
VII Chromosome Structure in Interphase Nuclei
1. Introduction
2. Structure of Interphase Nuclei of Living Cells
3. Structure of Interphase Nuclei after Fixation
4. Chromocenters
5. Electron Microscopy of Chromosomes in Interphase
6. Premature Condensed Chromosomes
7. Special Chromosome Regions in Interphase
8. The X-chromatin
VIII Heterochromatin
1. Introduction
2. Historical Remarks and Nomenclature
3. Constitutive Heterochromatin
4. Facultative Heterochromatin
5. Function of Heterochromatin
IX. The Position of Chromosomes within the Cell
1. Introduction
2. Peripheral Position
3. Association of Nucleolar Organizer Chromosomes
4. Somatic Pairing
5. Genome Separation
6. Multipolar Mitosis
7. Somatic Segregation
8. Constancy of Chromosome Position
X. Summary and Conclusions
Author Index.
Bibliographic Level Mode of Issuance: Monograph
Publisher Number:
10.1007/978-3-642-85910-6 doi